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Approaches To Personality Essay

1537 words - 6 pages

Personality can be defined as “the sum of characteristics that make a person unique”. (Weinberg and Gould, 2007) It can be divided into three levels consisting of a person’s psychological core, their typical responses and role-related behaviour. The psychological core involves a person’s values, interests, attitudes, motives and self-worth. Typical responses are learnt throughout life and are the ways a person behaves in different environments and how they react to various situations. Role-related behaviour is how someone conducts oneself dependent upon how they have perceived their social environment. There are five different aspects to personality, three of which will be discussed in this essay: trait, situational and interactional approaches. The trait approach assumes that personality is constant and stable. This means it does not take into account the variety of situations that might make a person behave differently. It is considered that a person is hard-wired to act in a certain way all the time regardless of situation. The situation approach is on the other end of the spectrum from trait approach and is environmentally determined, as opposed to internally determined. It states that behaviour is fundamentally controlled by situation or environment. The interactional approach is in the middle of the two, suggesting that behaviour is determined by both personality and situation as co-variants. It argues that an environment is not, on its own, enough to govern behaviour. A person’s individual traits need to be taken into consideration. In sport, these different aspects of personality are important because for a coach they can help produce more effective training sessions. This is because if they can understand the way the athlete thinks, for example their values and motives, they can tailor a training regime that will bring out the persons best efforts and therefore attain the best possible end goal. (Weinberg and Gould, 2007)
The situational approach
There are various factors to the situational approach. The main one being the difficulty of the task, as a more difficult task will have a lower success rate which could be demotivating. This ranges from a zero chance of success to guaranteed success, on a scale of 0-1. (Gill, 2000) An example of this is in the premier league where Chelsea played Fulham. Chelsea were unbeaten in their last 12 matches with Fulham in the premier league, making the likelihood of Fulham winning very low. With such a low success rate, Fulham would probably have expected to lose therefore making the loss (of 1-0 to Chelsea) inevitable. This might make them failure-oriented athletes, meaning that failure makes them believe they are not good and puts them in a negative motivational cycle. This is important in sport because motivation is incredibly important to ensure the team play well. Motivation is defined as where one puts ones effort and how much effort is put in. (Weinberg and Gould, 2007) With a lack of...

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