Archaea Essay

1856 words - 8 pages

Introduction
Archaea and the origin of life. The word Archaea originated from the Greeks, meaning beginning. Throughout this essay we will go through discovers of Archaea and why they are classified as Prokaryotes and what the actual evolutionary relationship of Archaea to Eukaryotes and bacteria. We will look at the differing views throughout the scientific community in regards to the number of domains. Over whether three domains of life or two domains of life fit in the Tree of life. We will look at some research that has supportive evidence of the same. This essay will then look at the Habitat of Archaea – why many Archaea are classified as extremophiles and how these are not just bacteria’s and that extremophiles are a diverse group and able to live in extreme conditions on earth. We will then talk about the Archaea and how they were originally classified as bacteria. Finally this essay will look at how Archaea work in symbiotic relationship in the digestive tract of termites.
Reasons that the Archaea have been classified as prokaryotes:
Before the latter part of the twentieth century Archaea was classified as an unusual group of bacteria called Archaeabacteria new research that pioneered the way by Dr Carl Woese and coworkers in the 1970’s which lead to work with phylogenetic on ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence comparisons using a technique that uses 16S rRNA sequencing. Moreover their information transfer systems or (DNA replication, transcription, translation) (Henderson’s, 1998).This is mainly involved in there active-protein translation, this helped accommodate Archaea to its own domain although they still have similar traits to their counterparts of Eukarya. Another different feature of Archaea is the distinctive method of how proteins cross the cell wall compared to bacteria and eukarya (Albers, Szabo, Driessen, 2006)
Archaea are of a single cell microorganism that have no nucleus or mitochondria or chloroplasts or membrane organelles that are consisting of cell bounded membrane lipids and this classification along with DNA sequences from the replication, transcription, translation (16S, rRNA) has lead to the new domain of life for the Archaea. The distinction was made from Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea which are classified different to the domain of the Eukaryotes and there four kingdoms (animals, plants, protists and fungi). The Prokaryotes meaning comes for the Greek word meaning (pro) “before” and (karyon) meaning “nut or kernel” Most of the prokaryotes can be seen as a unicellular organisms although the myxobacteria have been seen in different stages in their life cycles like in colonies of cyanobacteria. (Also call blue green algae) Which are predominantly photosynthetic and also fall into prokaryotes Eubacteria kingdom. Although you can find some Algae as Eukaryotes domain. Like most algae’s that are photosynthetic can produce oxygen gas as a by-product. Theorists have proposed that this could have been the link to change...

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