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India's Security Challenges Essay

2065 words - 9 pages

India is widely believed to have arrived on the global stage. The country is celebrated for its fastest-growing economies, educated professional class, its urban-based prosperity, and its Bollywood-fueled cultural influence abroad. However, while parts of the country bask in the glow of new-found affluence, others continue to toil in the gloom of abject poverty. This other side of India is also driven by violence and unrest, which increasingly targets the government. Although there was some disagreement over whether it was possible to categorize security threats into internal versus external, it is undeniable that the country’s security challenges are numerous. Therefore, this essay will try to analyze various security challenges of India and argue that India’s security challenges are more internal. The first part of the paper deals with defining ‘internal’ and ‘external’ security challenges. The second part presents the domestic and foreign security challenges of India. Then, the third part of the paper argues about the internal challenges paramount external challenges.
Etymologically, security implies the absence of real or perceived threats whether originating from internal turmoil, external sources, or incumbent economic disparities and inequalities. Over the course of the past two decades, the understanding and definition of security threats have undergone a two-fold transformation. First, the evolution of the international security environment has led to a diversification and decentralization of security threats, transcending state borders and actors, and spreading across political, economic, social and environmental dimensions. Second—and consequently—a major reprioritization of security threats followed, making non-traditional “hybrid” threats more conspicuous. In this essay, ‘internal security’ represents the Nation-State’s capacity to secure its sovereign power, Government, defined territory, and permanent population from all domestic threats. On the other hand, ‘external security’ represents foreign military threats on its local population.
Internal security concerns such as poor governance, insurgencies and religious extremism were highlighted and addressed as most vital issues affected India. First of all, severe political fragmentation has created obstacles to effective policy-making in India. India’s billion-strong population is not only both prosperous and poor, but also marvelously diverse. It is comprised of a rich mosaic of ethnicities, cultures and religions. Yet while these groups largely coexist peacefully, periods of violent activity often break out. Since the 1990s, the political rise of Hindu nationalism or Hindutva has also raised questions about India’s identity as a secular nation. Inter-communal clashes, terrorist acts (and retaliations) and other forms of upheaval and the rise of identity politics of varying kinds since the 1990s has been striking. The end result has been a multitude of political parties...

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