Are Office Seeking And Policy Seeking Theories Of Coalition Formation At Odds With Each Other?

3102 words - 12 pages

2.Are office seeking and policy seeking theories of coalition formation at odds with each other?Coalition theory is one of the least studied but highly interesting areas of political science. Coalitions are very common in European politics, much more so than single-party majorities and therefore coalition bargaining is a very important topic to be discussed, even if it is just intra-party bargaining. Coalitions are often seen as unstable in government and it is true that they often do not last as long as single-majority government, but it is also true that some of the most successful governments since the war have been coalitions ie. in Germany, Switzerland and Luxemburg. I will discuss whether office seeking and policy seeking theories of coalition formation are at odds with each other throughout this essay. Theories of coalitions are based on the motivations of the relevant actors in the coalition process, these theories range from the "intrinsic" rewards going to these politicians who got into office, such as power and prestige, to politicians who's motivation is seen as a desire to affect policy. There are two main traditions in coalition studies, the European politics tradition and the Game theoretic tradition, which help us to understand politician's motivations. To answer the question of whether office seeking and policy seeking theories of coalition formation are at odds, we must examine the details of coalition bargaining and discover the true motivations of politicians.The European politics tradition is research done at cross-national level, which means that this tradition uses actual coalition examples. It is a bit limited due to research being post war only, however it has produced a large body of work. Game theoretic tradition is an American method that uses game theory to understand coalitions, it sees government as a "fixed prize" so parties win or lose in this situation. This idea helps us to understand coalitions, but we must remember game theorists are interested in game theory not government coalitions. Unfortunately these two traditions don't understand each other and therefore do not help each other. This leads us to the first question we must ask, whether political parties are unitary actors in the coalition process or not? Game theory treat political parties as unitary actors as an assumption and this receives large criticism from the European tradition. In practice we can treat political parties as unitary actors, assuming once a decision is made everyone in the party obeys it, which is not always the case. These decisions can often lead to splits in the party. It is clear that parties are not actually unitary actors, but the real question is do they act as unitary actors as far as the coalitional process is concerned? It is true that European parties are very disciplined, however it is also true that intra-party decision-making is a process riddled with conflict, so we can definitely say that intra-party politics does...

Find Another Essay On Are office seeking and policy seeking theories of coalition formation at odds with each other?

Muriel Rukeyser's"Looking at Each Other" and Emily Dickinson's "Because I Could Not Stop For Death"

780 words - 3 pages , as it applies to literature, can be attained by an analysis of its formal, historical, and informal definitions. Muriel Rukeyser is an American author and political activist most recognized for her portrayals of feminism, social justice and equality. In her poem, “Looking at Each Other”, she has envisioned a scenario of absolute unification amidst two lovers. Rukeyser lists various motions and emotions that are being reciprocated between both

What are the Benefits of Social Science Research? Using literature and practical examples show how research has influenced our understanding of each other and society

1159 words - 5 pages them about the risks associated with underage drinking and other harmful behaviours were less apt to drink and/or drive because they felt that they were important to their parents. Due to the information obtained by these various studies, effort are being made to bring the danger of underage drinking into the public view, not only for teens, but also for their parents, teachers, government officials. Many National Campaigns have been launched to

"Spanish American War Versus Operation Iraqi Freedom" This essay compares and contrasts certain areas of both wars that are coincidently similar to each other

800 words - 3 pages part two.During the Spanish-American War, America had regained their motivation to expand their influence throughout the world and other countries. Manifest Destiny, the belief that expansion was inevitable, encouraged many journalists to promote the ongoing crisis in Cuba and, in their articles, imply to the United States that they should intervene in the war against Spain. This, along with the United States trend of imperialism, led to

What are happiness and success? A brief look at the definitions and relationship between happiness and success. Also goes into the factors of each

668 words - 3 pages Happiness and success are goals that humans have worked at since our creation. Everything we do has something relates to our quest for happiness. Even things we don't enjoy, like work and school, are done in hopes of achieving financial success, which is supposed to contribute to our happiness. I firmly believe that we wouldn't do something, no matter if it's good or bad, if we didn't believe that it would have some kind of positive effect on us

Merits and Dangers of Seeking Enhancement

2046 words - 9 pages Human genetic engineering technology is more advanced in the contemporary world, attracting numerous people support human enhancement. According to the Children's Medical Research Institute and The Children's Hospital at Westmead (2012), ‘over 1800 gene therapy clinical trials have been completed, are ongoing or have been approved worldwide’, which shown the increased significance of human engineering in the society. In accordance with the

IB Theory of Knowledge: Consider the extent to which knowledge issues in ethics are similar to those in at least one other area of knowledge

1674 words - 7 pages experimentation. If there are not any sources that theory, it lacks trustworthiness. Therefore, it is important to subject any knowledge claim in both AOK to a selective process to verify that it be free of any further knowledge issues. On the other hand, if there are no other competing theories and there is entrenchment over time, it is likely that the knowledge claim is correct.In conclusion, much like in the area of ethics, natural science is

Issues and help seeking behavior

1497 words - 6 pages help. So the society should promote more benefits of professional counselling and increase the acceptance of it. For adolescents, they are still at growing stage, abilities like perceptions, cognitions, abstract thinking are also developing. It is very important to guide them have a positive thinking of seeking professional help when facing issues concern them, in the end, may also help them develop a positive attitudes in their

Information Seeking Behavior of Users

1117 words - 4 pages countries which are struggling with basic infrastructure and low economies, there is a diversity of information seeking behavior. Within the indigenous population of these countries, a gap usually exists between the user groups of rural and urban dwellers. From studies reviewed by Dutta (2009), urban populations exhibit more typical behavior of industrialized countries whereas the rural dwellers’ information needs often go unrealized. Those in rural

USFDA Seeking Approval of DCVax

1303 words - 6 pages the vaccine the monocytes are differentiated into dendritic cells, and matured, activated, loaded with biomarkers (antigens) from patients own tissue. Individuals that were a part of the Phase I/II trials show results of roughly 2.5 more times the regular survival time with the normal standards of treatment (DCVax-L.) DCVax-Direct is injected directly into “inoperable” tumors which can ultimately reach any tumors, essentially any part of the human

Loyalty and Treasure-Seeking in Beowulf

2182 words - 9 pages with. Perfect heroes are admirable, but wholly alien on a fundamental level—they are not truly human. In fact, historically, “hero” was a name given to “men of superhuman strength, courage, or ability, favoured by the gods, at a later time regarded as intermediate between gods and men, and immortal.” In Beowulf, we are presented with two Beowulfs—the adventurous Beowulf in the prime of his life and then in the last part of the poem, an aged

Seeking Atonement in Crime and Punishment

660 words - 3 pages committed. . After the crime, Raskolnikov's involuntary confessions grew more and more conspicuous. Even without tangible evidence, Porifery could sense Raskolnikov's guilt. Raskolnikov faints at the police station. He was delirious for days from a fever and disturbed to being deranged afterward. He held his bloody rags in his hands. He even told Zametov outright and with exacting details how he "would have" committed the murder of Alyona

Similar Essays

What Specific Institutional Strategies Are Associated With Higher Retention Rates Of Online Degree Seeking Students?

1154 words - 5 pages overall higher education student population, with at least 5.6 million students enrolled in online courses in the fall of 2009(Conway k., Hachey A., Waldis C., 2012, para. 1). Due to this new growth in the adult education filed, it is necessary to study and research the specific institutional strategies associated with higher retention rates of online degree seeking students. Retention rates at all institutions are extremely important to follow

Understanding The Relationship Between American Schools And Society: A Look At How Society And Curriculum Are Based Upon Each Other

1815 words - 7 pages values and beliefs which are common with that of the societies are drummed into a child's life. Many social reformers at the time believed that the way to achieve a secular society was through educating children in a certain fashion. In the early 1800s schools in the United States eliminated English textbooks in an attempt to ensure nationalism and patriotism in Americans. At this time most people could only read the Bible, newspapers or their

Good And Evil Are Essential To Each Other

1815 words - 8 pages show growth, they are able to know evil and then make the educated decision that they do not want to fall into that trap and shun God. The path chosen by Adam and Eve may have seemed misguided at first, however it led to the world having the knowledge of what good is in relation to evil. The visions in Book IX show that an obedience to God, or a life style that is in line with God’s vision, can lead to humankind’s salvation. Adam and Eve’s sins

"Of Mice And Men" John Steinbeck Crooks, Lennie, Candy, And Curley's Wife...Outcasts Who Although Are Lonely And Seek Each Others Companionship, Ostracize Each Other Nevertheless

720 words - 3 pages In Chapter 4 of "Of Mice and Men," John Steinbeck portrays Crooks, Lennie, Candy, and Curley's wife as outcasts who although are lonely and seek each others companionship, ostracize each other nevertheless. Each of said characters seek companionship, are outcasts, and as a result abase one another.Crooks, Candy, Curley's wife, and Lennie are lonely and therefore seek companionship. Crooks is a very lonely character, and may in fact be the most