This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Are Women Living Longer Than Man?

2753 words - 12 pages

The question of women living longer than men has historically been a fundamental one, and certainly there has not been a lack of attention devoted to it. While the type of experiments that need to be done with humans are not ethically possible, scientists have made use of species closely related to us, model species, and statistics gathered from multiple organisations. In this way, there are considerable amounts of data that have been amassed concerning the differences between the two sexes, and not just in humans. While this makes it relatively easy to suggest hypotheses, as surely some results will follow a suggested trend, the quantity will make it hard to see the real and underlying ...view middle of the document...

The male is the sex that produces the smaller gametes, usually fairly motile, and the female is the sex that produces the larger, immotile gametes. In humans the male sex has specific paired chromosomes called the sex chromosomes, designated XY, and are associated with a male identity and masculine behaviour. The female sex has the XX chromosomes, and is generally associated with a female identity and feminine behaviour. The distinction between sex and gender comes from the importance of distinguishing between inherent biological differences present from conception, and the range of mental and behavioral characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity (Nobelius, 2004). In summary, sex is purely physical and biological, whereas gender is a word that should be reserved to describe a social construct created as a result of culture and interactions with other humans. Theoretically gender should have no relationship to sex, but in practice it is most likely very different, especially in the highly influential gender roles that modern western society has created for us. While gender will realistically have an effect on lifespan, which I will cover in a later section, the effect will be as a result of a variable rather than a biological constant like sex. The rate of ageing, or senescence, is essentially the rate at which damage to our genes accumulates and results in functional failure, or death. This is different to lifespan, and also displays different trends, yet overall women age less quickly and at different points (Clutton-Brock & Isvaran, 2007). Characteristically it is the female sex in humans that lives longer, by an average of 5 years worldwide, according to the United Nations World Population Prospects 2012 Revision. Life expectancy will vary massively depending on socioeconomic background and geography, but in general it is clearly seen that women have the advantage in lifespan. According to Eurostat the death rates for men (2010) were higher than for women for all of the main causes of death, except breast cancer. The instances for ischaemic heart diseases (relating to a restriction in blood supply to tissues) were about twice as high in men (105.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants), while this ratio “rose to four to five times higher for drug dependence and alcohol abuse, and three to four times higher for suicide, AIDS and cancer of the larynx, trachea, bronchus, and lung.” I will be discussing possible explanations behind these varied causes of death in the later sections of my essay. This sex-based mortality bias is true for most animals, yet has some exceptions, as I will come on to explain.
[1] For this section, and further ones, I will be excluding the intersexes from my writing. I am not denying their existence on any account; I am instead avoiding confusing the topic further with references to genetic abnormalities and their potential effects on longevity.
Sexual Selection
In this section I...

Find Another Essay On Are Women Living Longer than Man?

Why Are women Paid Less than Men? The Gender Gap

1726 words - 7 pages Why Are Women Paid Less Than Men? The Gender Gap Introduction The equality between men and women is an integral part of human rights, it is also a prerequisite for democracy and social justice. Any democratic state seeks to promote gender equality in all spheres of life. Despite the creation of a strong legal framework to ensure the principle of equality of both sexes, the gap between men and women about their capabilities remains significant

Are Women Treated Less Favorably than Men in the Workplace?

1248 words - 5 pages the household responsibilities, some women are choosing to stay home or work part-time rather than going back to work full-time. This career break inevitably creates a gap in wages due to lost experience in the field in comparison to male counterparts that continue to gain experience while the female worker stays home to raise a family. To further implicate the consequences of choosing family over a career, should a woman choose to work part

The Glass Ceiling: Are Women Treated Differently than Men?

3258 words - 13 pages management and promotions are often designed in ways that are more suited to men than to women. This is what creates the glass ceiling”. Beyond the limit of job titles, the glass ceiling also creates a pay difference between men and women performing the same work requirements. “The history of the Glass Ceiling Commission dates back to 1986 when Wall Street Journal reported a pattern of highly accomplished women being passed over for upper-level

why men are more depressed than women - psychology - research paper

1262 words - 6 pages depressed. But men can encounter it differently than a women. Men would be more likely to feel weary and anxious, and lose interest in their job or studies. They may experience more sleepless nights than women who would battle depression. And even though women are most likely to attempt suicide, men are more likely to die by suicide. More than just avoiding solitude, men should pick up a hobby or even talk to people that would help them overcome

Why Are Some Peoople Able to Survive Longer Than Others?

1015 words - 5 pages The aim of this work is to answer the question, “Can we generalize why certain people were able to survive more than others”? To survive the Gulag, many prisoners had to fight with others for food, shelter, and simple medical care. Certain prisoners went into religious and intellectual medications to preserve at least the appearance of intelligence. The survival required willpower, strength of mind, skills, mercilessness, and a lot of luck

Agamemnon- Women I tell you are no longer to be trusted discuss this in relation to books 1-12 of Homers' Odyssey

1916 words - 8 pages Women, I tell you, are no longer to be trusted- Agamemnon. Discuss this statement in reference Homer’s Odyssey books 1-12. Women play a very important role in shaping the travels of Odysseus and his son Telemachus in Homers The Odyssey .Oddly enough, women in this book are not only given authority, respect, power are feared which in this culture, was virtually unheard of, but they are also given in depth, detailed characters. The female

The Twenty-first Century vs The 1960s and 1970s: Are Women Freer than They Were Before?

1858 words - 8 pages . Although times have changed between then and now, are women freer than they were when the second wave hit? Women’s rights began early on in the United States, in the 1800s, with women trying for marriage rights and the right to “control over her own body.” Women’s rights begun by women did not become an immense, all-involving movement until the Progressive era suffragettes in the early 1900s. This women rallied for the right to vote, as well as

The Feminist Movement is Necessary: Men are Paid more Than Women

1399 words - 6 pages due to women earning less pay than men (even when they are working the same job), women are being held to unfair and sometimes outdated gender stereotypes, and sexual assault is becoming more and more frequent. Men are paid more than women.; it’s a pretty well known fact. In 2012, women were still earning only 77 cents for every dollar men made, and it’s worse for minorities. Laura Bassett from the Huffington Post points out that “within some

Are women more risk averse than men? Analyses with data from professional tennis

9030 words - 36 pages professional tennis: exemplary analyses with focus on risk aversion 204 CONCLUSION 22ANNEX 29REFERENCES 34EIDESSTATTLICHE ERKLÄRUNG INTRODUCTIONWomen appear to have closed the gender gap in education. Around 60 per cent of all graduate degrees that were awarded in America in 2008 and 2009 were given to women. However one still observes striking inequality in terms of earnings. Interestingly enough, women are still paid less than men in equivalent job

What are the main reasons why women are more likely to be in poverty than men since 1945

455 words - 2 pages disadvantage. Further, part time employment results in poor access to both state and company pension schemes due to lower N.I contributions and company policies of full time employment. As woman live on average ten years longer than men any provisions are diluted over a longer period.Women are denied equal access to employment as a result of assumptions of male full time employment. This inequality systematically disadvantages women and greatly compromises their protection from poverty (Dale: 1986).

This Is An Essay That Could Be No Longer Than A Page That Describes The Way They Are Controlling The Population In China And Briefly How It Affects The Rest Of The World!

539 words - 3 pages believe it has reached carrying capacity.The Chinese Government could deal with the problem of the population in China exploding in different ways than they are. One of three female children born in China is killed. We should not allow this to happen when it will surely unbalance the amount of organisms in the biosphere? "Experts say that even with controls on the birthrate, China's population should peak at about 1.6 billion people in the mid-21st

Similar Essays

Women Are Not Weaker Than Man

1527 words - 6 pages their male counterparts. There are historical records that date back to the Ancient Greeks and Celtics that tell stories of women in distress and unable to save themselves from a horrid situation. Fast forward to the 1900s and women are no longer tolerating an acquiescent lifestyle where their every whim is dominated by the man of the household. What happened in the 1900s in turn set a string of events that lead to modern day politics where

Why Do Women Live Longer Than Men?

546 words - 2 pages for men. Women live longer while men die younger. There are many aging theories that try to explain why this happens, but still they are just theories. Why do women live longer than men do? Maybe it's because women want to make sure they get the absolute last word, or because they don't get shot when they wear a dress in public, or finally because they go to the bathroom in groups to protect each other from whatever they may find in these

Are Women More Polite Than Men

3834 words - 15 pages Wears Prada, 2006). In 1972, Lakoff in "Language and Women's Place" has argued that women have a different way of communication than men; as each reflects and produces a certain position in society. This claim has asserted that when women have a subordinate status, it is actually reflected on their language. For women, language is learned as a part of "learning to be a woman", in which women are forced to speak in a certain way, which their

Are Women Better Rulers Than Men?

640 words - 3 pages This argument on the question; are women better rulers than men? Will focus on the example of Elizabeth I compared to the average of male rulers.It mostly depends which era you live in, in modern times it would really not make much of a difference as both genders are considered equal. But in the Tudor era, looking at it from the present, a female would definitely have had the upper hand, but from the common perspective of people in the Tudor