Argument can be defined as claim or thesis statement. The aim of an argument is to convince audience. It is essential to make sound argument so that audience could engage in and align with the author’s view. Therefore, one of the key elements could be identified as the awareness of audience. Another key element is evidence. In order to persuade audience, argument should be consolidated through evidence and authority. The credibility of author and argument could be enhanced by means of using evidence and referring to authorities. The strength of evidence could determine the degree of sound argument. Besides, sound argument should be logical. Firstly, evidence should be consistent with arguments. Secondly, the structure of argument should be clear. It consists of premise and conclusion. The function of premise is to state proposition. The conclusion is based on and supported by accurate premise. In sound argument both premise and conclusion are valid. However, according to Tyler, Kossen and Ryan (2005: 168) sound argument is both valid which means logically consistent and true argument. Hence, the premise of an argument also need to be true. Furthermore, counterargument could be considered as another key element of sound argument. Using counterargument in text can reinforce writer’s argument through discussing and addressing opposed opinion. However, writers need to ensure that your reply to counterargument is consistent with your main argument. The last element is to avoid fallacies. There are two kinds of common fallacies, legitimate and illegitimate methods of argument. Both of them may lead to flaw or fault in the reasoning and logic.
Wether universities should lower marks for students who come from poor and disadvantaged backgrounds or not has led to considerable controversy. However, the identification of poor and disadvantaged should be clearly defined. Obviously, poor could indicates socioeconomic backgrounds. While disadvantaged could not be merely defined financially, but refers to social factors. Disadvantaged could mean students who come from working-class, lower socioeconomic or unhealthy families, such as dysfunctional families, single parents. Moreover, in terms of the marks of entry into University, it should include both entrance examination and tuition fee. By clarifying these relevant elements, my position to this question is proponent. I would elaborate from three aspects in terms of inspiring students to strive for entering university, avoid missing elite and consolidating social stability.
Firstly, lower entrance marks could inspire poor and disadvantaged students to study hard. Since there has been a greater chance access to higher education, students could be provided with passion and motivation to study for their future. Specifically, compared with peers, students who have chance to enter into university are very likely to obtain a better job after they graduated. Therefore, especially for poor and...