According to the Aristocracy of Manufacturers, which from Democracy in America, Tocqueville mainly discussed about how scientific manufactures bring people to the aristocracy. He separately discussed about potential harms of division of labor, and the differences between the new aristocracy and the old one. In his mind, division of labor expends the rank between the workers and masters, because work men only pay attrition on the specific work processes, which limit their views and thinking abilities, but masters consider extensive production view more than workers, which makes masters control more social capital. This phenomenon tends to the new aristocracy. In addition, he argued that this new aristocracy is different between the old one, because the relationship between the masters and workers are built by the benefits, which means masters only pay workers for producing goods, and masters have no responsibility to workers out of the working hours. In the old aristocracy, workers belong to the masters. Masters have responsibility to workers’ lives.
In order to show the potential harms of division of labor, Tocqueville presented an example about making pin head. He believed that a worker, who make pin heads over twenty years, wouldn’t do more but making pin heads. The reason is, In the process of division of labor, the pin heads maker only consider about doing his job, the job limits his ideas and views. In this situation, the worker is not belonging to himself but belonging to the job.
Tocqueville argues that this production mode leads to workers lose the general faculty of applying their minds to the direction of the work. He supports his argument as the example of workers who spent twenty years in making heads for pins. He says that workers only focus on how to make pin heads effectively. It tends to become a daily toil for workers. In this case, Tocqueville says, workers are no longer belonging to themselves, but to the work that they have chosen. The workers become more weak, narrow-minded, and dependent.
In addition, under the division of labor, the high quality products are made more than before, which attracted more rich people coming to engage. Then, more poor people were hired to be workers as well. As times goes by, masters became richer, because they focus on big view to earn more capitals, like hiring intelligent managers, using effective producing modes and opening more factories. Conversely, because workers’ views were limited by the single and repetitive job, they became weak and shortsighted. The gap between rich and poor were becoming obviously, and this is the reason that the new aristocracy was built.
In discussion of the differences between the new aristocracy and the old one, Tocqueville focused on the relationship between masters and workers. Because of the division of labor, the high effective production helps masters being richer, and the workers being weaker. The group of masters, who control more capitals, is the...