Aristotel Essay

682 words - 3 pages

Aristotel- Platonov učenik-Naglašava važnost logike ili rasuđivanja u filozofiji.-Njegov filozofski sustav aristotelizam uči da se ljudsko znanje postiže najprije pomoću osjetnog iskustva.Po njegovu učenju, najviša je od svih znanosti "prva filozofija" (metafizika), jer proučava biće kao biće te otkriva da ono po sebi ima razna, to jest analogna značenja.Sastavni i najviši dio "prve filozofije" jest teologija.Ona proučava božanski nus ili "um", koji je prvi, nepokretni i nepokrenuti pokretač sveukupne zbilje.Objašnjavajući gibanje i nastajanje kao prijelaz supstancije ne iz nebića u biće, nego iz bića kao mogućnosti u biće kao zbiljnost, Aristotel daje jedan od najvažnijih odgovora na središnji problem grčke filozofije. Taj prijelaz omogućuju metafizička načela materije (mogućnost neke stvari) i forme (ostvarenje te mogućnosti), koje u osjetnom svijetu ne postoje odvojeno, nego tek zajedno tvore konkretnu supstanciju.MetafizikaBavi se bićem bivstvujućeg s tim što bivstvujuće ne može da postoji bez bića, a biće postoji kroz bivstvujuće i oni čine jedinstvo. Ideje postoje u pojedinačnim stvarima a ne izvan njih.Po Aristotelu stvarnost se objašnjava na osnovu četiri principa:Materijani uzrok - materijaFormalni uzrok (forma, oblik ili ideja)Delatnu uzrok (kretanje)Finalni uzrok ili svrhaStvarnost je materija koja ima neku ideju i kreće se ka cilju. Prema Aristotelu prvi fizičari su otkrili materijalni i delatni uzrok. Platon je dodao formalni uzrok ili ideje a ono što dodaje Aristotel je finalni uzrok ili svrha stvarnosti.Materija je osnov, ono što trpi promene, što se mijenja. Pasivna je jer ne može da se mijenja sama od sebe, ona se mijenja zahvaljujući formi ili ideji koja je aktivan princip (ideja oblikuje materiju). Svaka materija ima svoj oblik, neku formu. Jedinstvo materije i forme je supstancija. Svaka pojedinačna stvar je jedinstvo materije i forme. (Supstancija postoji na kategorijalan način određen kvalitet, kvantitet (nalazi se u vremenu, prostoru...)).Materija ima stalnu težnju da pređe u svoju formu, da se oblikuje, i taj prelazak je kretanje. Kretanje je zapravo promijena. Kretanje je zapravo prelazak potencijalnog u aktualno stanje. Mi smo ono što jesmo ali istovremeno i ono što bi trebali biti. Celokupna priroda postoji...

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