ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING DEPARTMENT
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
CLASS - B
ARTICLE ANALYSIS & EVALUATION
PERCEIVED FOREIGN ACCENT IN FIRST LANGUAGE ATTRITION AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: THE IMPACT OF AGE OF ACQUISITION AND BILINGUALISM
MONIKA S. SCHMID
"Perceived foreign accent in first language attrition and second language acquisition: The impact of age acquisition and bilingualism" study was conducted by Holger Hopp and Monika S. Schmid in Germany 2010.The key words used in the study are AOA, FAR, bilingualism, LOR, acquisition.The aim of Hopp and Schmid (2010) is to evaluate the relative effect of AOA and bilingualism in late L1 attrition and L2 acquisition.Hopp and Schmid (2010) state that late L2 learners have difficulties in speech pronunciation during the transfer from the native on the strength of language age of acquisition (AOA).In their study Hopp and Schmid (2010) addresses the following research questions: To what degree perceived foreign accent is affected by whether participants use the target language on a regular basis?This study demonstrates that acquiring a language from birth cannot guarantee a native like pronunciation, nor late acquisition anticipates the achievement.Hopp and Schmid (2010) reviewed researchers as Bialystok (1997, 2001), Moyer (1999), Flege (2002, 2009), Jesney (2004), et al. and their previous research studies, each study giving supportive and non-supportive sources. Citing Bialystok (1997, 2001), the researchers discuss that age of acquisition in L2 speech production differ in terms of conceptualization. Furthermore, DeKeyser and Larson-Hall (2005), Hyltenstam and Abrahamson (2003) states that maturational reductions in cerebral plasticity prohibit the reorganization of the speech production as well. "Language use is linked with AOA because early L2ers who arrive in the target-language environment before age 10 tend to adopt the L2 as the main language of communication, whereas late L2ers retain higher degrees of use of the L1" (Jia, Aaronson and Wu (2002) as cited in Hopp and Schimd (2010:362). On the other hand, MacKay, Fledge and Imai (2006), Piske et al. (2001) claim that even L2 learners with AOA are underneath the onset of puberty, while Ventureyra (2005), and Ventureyra, Pallier and Yoo (2004) suggest that:Spearkers who experience sequential monolingualism, that is, a complete break in L1 input followed by a rapid breakdown of this system and full immersion in onther language in all contexts of life may become fully nativelike in L2 speech perception even if this language reversal took place as late as age 10. (p.363)Cross-linguistic issues in bilingualism are studied in a meticulous way as well. The results show that bilingualism affects systems and components of L1 and L2 processing, additionally the speed they convert in either language. In terms of pronunciations is stated that cross-linguistic impact is bidirectional in the...