In the primary literature article, the title, “Algal blooms decrease care but increase egg survival in a fish with paternal care”, was more like a hypothesis Jarvenpaa gave as general headline of what the paper will be talking about.
As for the abstract, it summarizes the paper in one paragraph, it includes the aim which is testing the effect of unclear water caused by algal on aspects of paternal care in a sand goby fish. It also summarizes the question Jarvenpaa was addressing. Then it includes the methods he used, allowing males to care for their eggs in clear and turbid water, to find the answer to the question he addressed. Finally he added the results he came up with that supported his hypothesis, that turbidity decreases egg care but increases egg survival.
From both the abstract and the title, the reader can easily assume that Jarevenpaa is trying to find evidence to support his hypothesis that algal bloom has an effect on father’s care to his egg by knowing the amount of survived eggs.
The introduction of the paper, “Algal blooms decrease care but increase egg survival in a fish with paternal care”, was rich enough to give the reader an idea about the background and the importance of this experiment conducted on sand goby fish. For every idea he included he cited more than one paper to support his ideas. Jarvenpaa started by explaining how changes in the environment would affect the parental care and he gave fish as an example. Jarvenpaa also described how any change in the concentration of oxygen would affect the costs and benefits of parental care in aquatic organisms; other researcher using flagfish and looking at parental care response to environmental gradient concluded this aspect (Hale et al, 2003). Moreover, he justified that in the case of hypoxia, parents spend most of their energy in fanning their eggs to remove the water that lacks oxygen from the nests; this was concluded in a researcher paper using intertidal fish (Coleman, 1992). In addition, he stated how female prefer to mate with males who care more for their eggs; this was accomplished in the conclusion of other researcher using anthropods and looking at the evolution of paternal care (Tallamy, 2003). Thus this caring enhances both eggs fitness and mate attraction as concluded in other researchers paper (Jarvenpaa and Lindström, 2004). Talking about algae, Jarvenpaa stated how algae excessive photosynthesis leads to oxygen’s supersaturation and how after each storm events, the algae accumulate at the bottom and decomposes leading to hypoxic conditions; this was the deduction other researchers paper (Enz et al., 2002; Berezina et al., 2007). Jarvenpaa stated that the turbidity caused by the alga affect the sexual selection (Jarvenpaa, 2011); this was detailed by Jarvenpaa when he explained how goby female prefer colorful male (Jarvenpaa and Lindström, 2004). However this sand gobies male color might become vague under the turbidity of the algae...