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Artificial Intelligence Robots Essay

887 words - 4 pages

Artificial Intelligence - Robots Robotics is a technology area that designs machines to perform work usually done by humans. The devices known as robots, have artificial intelligence that makes them appear to have human like intelligence and qualities, such as learning, reasoning, communicating, seeing and hearing. Artificial Intelligence is the behavior performed by a machine that would require some degree of intelligence if the task were carried out by a human. The term robot originates from the Czech word robota, which means "compulsory labor." Robots are more widely known now as a machine that performs work to assist people or work that humans find difficult, dangerous or undesirable.The concept of automated machines dates way back. In the 18th-century watchmakers were famous for their clever mechanical creatures. Medieval churches had manlike machines in the form of clockwork figures. Myths of mechanical beings brought to lofe dates back to antiquity.Robots come in two different types, the drone type which is controlled by humans, and the artificial intelligent type that runs from its own programming. Robots are in one sense a collection of basic technologies: sensors, controlling and analysis software, pattern recognition capabilities, and so on.Some of the earliest robots with feedback or self-correcting control mechanisms are still in use today. An example of feedback control is a watering trough that uses a float to sense the water level. When the water falls past a certain level, the float drops, opens a valve, and releases more water into the trough. As the water rises, so does the float. When the float reaches a pre-determined height, the valve is closed and the water is shut off.The inspiration for the design of a robot manipulator is a variation of the human arm. Unlike the human arm though the robot arm can extend its length by telescoping. Robot arms can also be constructed so that they bend like an elephant trunk. Grippers or special end-effectors are designed to mimic the function and structure of the human hand. Many robots are equipped with special purpose grippers to grasp particular devices such as a rack of test tubes or an arc-welder. The joints of a robotic arm are usually driven by electric motors. A computer calculates the joint angles needed to move the gripper to the desired position. Some multi-jointed arms are equipped with feedback controls that receive input from a computer. Each joint in the arm has a device that measures the angles then relays that value to the controller. Controllers and the associated computers also process sensor information collected from cameras to locate the objects to be grasped, and touch sensors on the grippers regulate the force of the grasp.Any robots designed to move in an unstructured or unknown environment also require ultrasonic or infrared...

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