Artificial organ for transplant
The next application of animal biotechnology in pharmaceutical is artificial organ for transplant. Organ transplant can be defined as “a surgical operation where a failing or damaged organ in the human body is removed and replaced with a new one” (Paul, Valapour, Bartele, Abbott-Penny, & Kahn, 2004, p.5). According to Paul, Valapour, Bartele, Abbott-Penny, and Kahn (2004), example of organs that can be transplanted are skin, cornea and bone marrow that are less invasive but require specialized procedures. Cooper and Ayares (2012) mentioned that xenotransplantation is cross-species organ transplantation from animal to treat human. Furthermore, every year human need organs, tissues and cells for transplantation but lack in number of deceased human organs, so the interest of using organs and cells from animal species are rises continuously (Cooper & Ayares, 2012). Other than that, Houdebine, Lena and Burachik (2012) had stated that the most likely species for clinical transplantation into human is pig. In human heart surgery, the pig heart valves have been used for almost 30 years and in 1960’s, the best result was achieved when a chimpanzee’s kidney was transplanted into one patient who lived for nine months after the surgery (Nairne et al., 1996).
There are few reasons to some people who need transplant for their organs. First, they were born with a structural abnormality of an organ. For example, congenital heart defect or biliary artresia that make a child require to undergo liver transplant. Next, nobody is perfect since some people was born with disease due to inherited disorder from their parents or some mutation happens in their genes that causes an organ fail to function well. Then the last reason was they easily got illness such as simply catching cold or flu that affect the heart’s muscle ability to contract and result them to have a heart transplant as earlier as they could (Transplant Australia, n.d.). Hence, artificial organ is very important to prevent life support so that imminent death while awaiting a transplant can be prevented (Paul, Valapour, Bartele, Abbott-Penny, & Kahn, 2004).
Therapeutic protein is one of the application in pharmaceutical that can help to improve human life in the future. According to Pohlmeier and Eenennaam (2008), facilities to manufacture human therapeutic proteins are expensive to construct, operate and maintain compare to animals. Besides, the production of recombinant proteins in the milk and blood of transgenic animals are less costly to yield therapeutic...