Visual Attention And Motion Essay

3303 words - 13 pages

Visual Attention and Motion

The human observer is quite efficient at detecting motion. If a target is detectable when still, it becomes even more so when it is in motion. The brain uses multiple cues to help us perceive motion including information from all of our senses. The focus of this paper will be the visual system and how motion is perceived visually. Motion is in part perceived by the changing patterns of light on the retina. This cannot account for total motion perception, however, because we can perceive motion while keeping an image stable on our retina or create changes in these light patterns by moving our head and eyes. In order to turn these spatial patterns of light into information about motion we must integrate and interpret visual information. We use motion as a cue for grouping objects in the environment together and the motion of one thing can have an effect on the way other things are perceived to move. Things that move together are seen as belonging together and things that are near to objects in motion can be perceived to be in motion themselves. Then we use motion to interpret visual information in our environment. For instance, dots moving together in various patterns can create a percept of a 3-D object; dots moving in certain patterns can create the percept of a human or animal in motion even without lines connecting to create the form. You can also change the perception of how an object is moving by changing the focus of your attention. (Mather, 1998)
Attention is one of those words like “anti-social” where the common use may or may not have any relation to its use in the realm of psychology. On any given day, one is likely to say or be told to “pay attention.” This is especially true of conversations between adults and children. However, trying to study and quantify attention can create a quandary. What is it exactly? How does it work? Even Webster is of little help. If you look it up in the dictionary you will find an entry that states “to keep one’s mind on something.” That would describe the phrase “to pay attention” or “to attend,” but one is still left wondering what is the mechanism of attention. Some researchers don’t even like to use the word attention because it is difficult to say exactly what the term is meant to identify (Pashler, 1998; Thornton & Gilden, 2001; Watamaniuk & McKee, 1995, 1998).
According to H. E. Pashler (1998) there are “(two primary ideas) that characterize attention: selectivity and capacity limitation.” That is, at any given moment in time we are receiving a great deal of perceptual information and because we can become overwhelmed by trying to do too much at once we must select the part of our environment that is relevant at that particular moment. Pashler goes on to identify “core phenomena addressed by attention research: selectivity of perception, voluntary control over this selectivity, and capacity limits in mental functioning that...

Find Another Essay On Visual Attention and Motion

Analysis of I Am Legend Directed by Francis Lawrence

900 words - 4 pages approach to the narrative. It informs the audience that the “hunter is being hunted” which also emphasises a strongpoint in a dystopia. Having deer roaming through the streets challenges the normality of the suburban environment. This visual environment also magnifies this theme of survival. Slow motion sequences of Will Smith and his dog walking through the empty street magnifies the vulnerability and hopelessness of the protagonists. It creates

illusion Essay

979 words - 4 pages Movement is an important element for our perception of the world. Helmholtz (1986) proposed that we see movement by taking a copy of the move muscle signal (efference copy) and compare it with the retinal image motion, and this brain signal theory has been supported from findings by Stevens et al. (1976) findings. The motion detector detects movement in the visual system. There is no motion detectors in the retina or LGN (Barlow & Hills, 1963

Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

973 words - 4 pages initiate a smooth pursuit eye movement (Rashbass, 1961). Although, by degrading the available retinal information, to the extent that perceived motion was either inaccurate or illusory, Steinbach (1976) reported that smooth pursuit only requires an ‘appreciation of the object in motion with respect to the observer, regardless of retinal stimulation’. Smooth pursuit can be elicited by non-visual information, with proprioceptive and tactile information

Exploring Eye Motion and Models of Head Centered Motion Perception

1392 words - 6 pages 1.4 Combining Afferent and Efferent Signals: Models of head centred motion perception. Sensory signals relating information about our physical movements, as well as information regarding external object motion, are required in order to preserve a stable and accurate view of the world, and estimate external motion. Space constancy is the visual system’s ability to maintain a view of the outside world that does not jump about and move with an


2236 words - 9 pages performance is sort of related to visual attention. The classic change blindness phenomenon, that is, changing in scene are very easy to detect unless you place a blank screen between the two different images, and then these changes are virtually impossible to detect. The standard hypothesis of today is “ visual attention”. Efficient fovea fixation and peripheral retina are important to trigger visual attention. The real mechanism of visual attention

Neurology and Neurosurgery

1587 words - 6 pages Neurology and Neurosurgery Neurology Overview Although our primary interest is with the Medial Temporal Lobe, also called the V5 area, a discussion of the entire motion perception pathway is instructive. Motion perception actually begins with the specialized visual receptors in the retina known as M-cells (from the Latin word magnus, for large). As the name implies, the M-cells are relatively large, located in the peripheral

The Reference Signal Model

1608 words - 6 pages -locomotor mappings under instances of displaced vision. Others have disputed the role of optic flow in the visual guidance of walking (Rushton, Harris, Lloyd & Wann, 1998) instead suggesting that it is involved in the recalibration of egocentric space (Held & Freedman, 1963; Brandwood, Rushton & Charron, 2009). Parallels can be drawn between employing retinal motion for egocentric recalibration of locomotion and the retinal recalibration of world motion via a reference signal .

Visual Learning Style as Perceived by DLSL Education Students

1561 words - 7 pages essay type of exams because there are no pictures or any visuals involve on it. Diagramming, reading maps, essays (if you've studied using an outline), and showing a process these are the type of test they are good at. Students who are visual learners pay attention to on overhead slides, PowerPoint presentations, hand-outs, graphs and charts. If a teacher uses a lot of verbal directions, though, visual learners may get confused as they prefer to

Data visualization

915 words - 4 pages Methods Developing a motion chart is a technique can be used to avoid the problems stated above. It can avoid chart junk which contains extraneous visual elements that distract from the message which should not be in the chart. It prevents distracting patterns, overbearing colors and even unnecessary grids and outlines. According to Edward Tufte, chartjunk can turn bores into disasters, but it can never rescue a thin data set. It also helps to

Brain Injury

1016 words - 5 pages Physical Effects of Stroke Vision Loss Vision loss generally is referred to as a loss of visual field, meaning that a person has a disturbance in their field of vision, which can no longer be seen. To classify Visual field loss, size and scope of visual disturbance is considered. A stroke occurring in left hemisphere, will affect the right field of vision in each eye. The same applies to the right of hemisphere affecting vision in the left


1077 words - 4 pages orientation. V5 or MT is specialised for visual motion. Zeki (1992) anticipated that colour, form and motion are handled in structurally separate parts of the visual cortex. Understanding the visual systems construction is key to understanding human brain function (Cognitive Psychology: A Student Handbook).Reference ListMilner A. David and Goodale A. Melvyn (1995, 1998) The Visual Brain in ActionKolb and Whishaw (2010) Ch9 An introduction to Brain and Behaviour 3rd editionEysenck W. Michael and Keane T. Mark Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook (2010)BibliographyGazzaniga et al. (2002) Ch5 & 6 The Cognitive Neurosciences 4th edition (2009)

Similar Essays

Theories Of Visual And Auditory Attention

2402 words - 10 pages A popular subject within psychology is that of selective attention, particularly visual, auditory or visual and auditory attention (Driver, 2001). There are many theories of visual and auditory attention that provide us with a greater understanding of the ways in which humans attend to different stimuli (Driver, 2001), such as Broadbent’s (1958) filter theory of attention for example. This essay will compare and contrast theories of visual and

I'm A Reel Boy Essay About The History And Evolution Of Special And Visual Effects In The Motion Picture Industry. Covers Techniques From Pyrotechnics To Digital Composites

1216 words - 5 pages passing by the camera flabbergasted and frightened early audiences, when motion pictures were jittery and lacked sound. Now, it has become increasingly difficult to decipher between what is reality and what a men tediously manipulated. The goal of visual effects artists, as magicians of the silver screen, is now to push our senses to their limits and create an illusion of reality without our knowing. George Lucas, one of the greats in film and

Vision And Blindsight Essay

1591 words - 6 pages , patients are often able to respond directly to visual cues in their blind fields. Patients tend to correctly identify shape, color, and motion of inputs. In a forced choice experiment, where the subject is asked to identify certain features of a visual cue, the subject will perform much better than chance even though they feel as if they are randomly guessing (2). While head trauma or tumors often induce the "psychic" blindness of these

Inattention And Change Blindness: Undetected Visual Changes In Real World Interactions

597 words - 3 pages Two intriguing phenomena regarding visual attention and human behavior are inattention and change blindness. Generally, one would think that very discriminable changes to active stimuli in the environment can be easily detected, but research has shown this is not always the case. Previous research studies using photographs and motion pictures have reported participants’ lack of detecting salient changes in stimuli, but other studies have also