To select the countries for this task I searched for different criteria’s for development of nations. For my mind most reliable and suitable I found from United Nations Specialized Agencies, like IMF, World Bank Group and naturally WHO. My selections for this task are in addition to Finland are Democratic Republic of the Congo (later DRC) and Turkey.
DRC had the lowest GNI in year 2012 in the world, being 220 USD per capita and in year 2000 it was 90 USD per capita. In 2012 GNI in Turkey was 10 830 USD per capita and Finland 46 940 USD per capita, highest recorded was in Norway 98 860 USD. (World Bank 2013.)
I selected Turkey to this task because country is applying for membership of European Union and it is a very big country on the border of Europe and Asia. There is a lot of international migrants and also asylum seekers in Turkey from Asia and currently from Syrian crisis.
Most interesting comparisons or classifications I found was Human Development Index (HDI) and from that derived Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). Both reports are part Human Development report, which aim is to stimulate global, regional and national policy discussion on issues which are relevant to human development. (UNDP 2013a, UNDP 2013b.)
My aim in this task is to describe health care system of selected countries. I also try to estimate what is the effect of overall level of development of the country to the health care system.
2 DESCRIBING THE LEVEL OF DEVELPOMENT
Commonly used criteria for evaluating the level of nations economics is gross national income (GNI). GNI is converted to U.S dollars and it is a sum of resident producers and income from abroad. (World Bank 2013a.)
The growth rate of GDP (Gross domestic product) is often used as an indicator how an economy is performing. Usual method to compare countries to each other is to convert value of DGP to U.S dollars and then compare them. GDP per capita is often used as a measurement an average citizen’s well-being, it is important to understand that GDP is not a measure of overall standard of living or well-being in a certain country. GDP is not taking on account distribution of income, environmental issues, reduction of leisure time etc. (IMF 2013).
UN’s (UN 2013) Human Development Index (HDI) serves as frame of reference for both social and economic development. It has four indicators; life expectancy, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita.
Table 1. GNI per capita, annual GDP growth %, HDI and IHDI figures.
World Bank (2013c) classifies economies according to 2012 GNI per capita in the following way; low income 1 035 USD or less, lower middle income 1 036 – 4 085 USD, upper middle income 4 086 – 12 615 USD and high income 12 616 USD or more.
According to UNDP (2013) values higher than 0.807 refer to very high, values from 0.602 to 0.806 to high, values 0.485 to 0.601 medium and values lower than 0.310 to low human development. DRCs ranking...