PRACTICE MINI ESSAY
ASSESS THE AIMS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF BISMARCK'S FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC POLICIES BETWEEN 1871 AND 1890
As chancellor between 1871 and 1890, Bismarck had set out for many innovative aims in terms of Germany's domestic and foreign policies, and most of which were successful.
Regarding his domestic policy, it is clear that his Kulturkampf had been a failure. After Bismarck placed the clergy under state control and Pius IX claimed that the state comes second to the church, devout Catholics began to prioritize God over Bismarck and his Protestant industrial movements. Resisting Catholics created the very organized and influential Catholic Center Party to voice their demands in the Reichstag. After they had gained too much influence for Bismarck to suppress, he was forced to coincide with their moderate requests. In order to execute his pragmatism, Bismarck could no longer contain the resisting Catholics. They had remained loyal to God and the church, note Bismarck and the government. Here, Bismarck was unsuccessful. Also staying loyal to their beliefs were the socialists. Bismarck desired a Prussian-like nation built on industrialization, but socialists threatened that goal. Most Germans worked in factories and had demanded better wages and working conditions. To achieve this they created a political party even more organized than the Catholics to oppose Bismarck's suppression. Until doing so, Bismarck's Junker status had created tunnel-vision and he was oblivious to the outrage in their movement. Eventually Bismarck practiced Real Politik to avoid jeopardizing industrialism. He adopted only some of their moderated ideals through the power of veto. The socialists were granted...