Calcium is primary found in bones and teeth (99%). However, the other 1% is directly related to proper nerve functioning. Increased calcium results in nerve damage caused by nerve inflammation (Yasko 20). As such, the proper balance of calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium ions maintains muscle tone and controls nerve irritability. If the calcium levels remain unusually high, in rare cases, “skeletal and membrane damage can also occur” (Ibid.).
Scarce amounts of calcium in a short window of time do not affect or produce any obvious symptoms. The buffer to this is the body’s maintaining of calcium levels in the blood by taking it from the skeletal (bone) system. Conversely, excess amounts of calcium are usually eliminated in the urine and intestines. Health problems associated with a lack of calcium include loss of bone density, muscle pain, cramps, or spasms, numbness of tingling in the hands (referred to as “tetany”), anxiety, hyperkinesias, and alcoholism, More extremer harms of calcium deficiency or intake have been linked to colon cancer, type-two diabetes, and obesity. Lesser-impact side effects involve muscle twitching, insomnia, and confusion.
Although it is not common to take in excess amount of calcium, it certainly is possible. One common cause of excess calcium is the overuse of calcium supplements. Amounts greater than 2,000 mg a day may lead to hypercalcemia, which can occur from hormonal imbalance and milk alkali syndrome. Long-standing effects of too much calcium can lead to kidney stones, constipation, and reduction of iron, magnesium, zinc, and phosphorus. Finally, in older adults, bone fractures may be more commonplace as because of high bone remodeling rates that lead to exhaustion of bone-forming cells called osteoblasts.
Digestion and Absorption: 3-5 paragraphs
Calcium is harder to digest than other minerals the body may intake. However, there are many reasons that affect how it is absorbed by the body. First, calcium’s absorption in the body is mainly supported by the presence of Vitamin D, which helps maintain normal blood levels. The mineral is the most...