Aspects Of Criminology Essay

2054 words - 8 pages

Criminology is defined as an interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior including their forms, causes, legal aspects, and control. There are many aspects in the field of criminology. These aspects include the areas of research involved, the criminology schools of thought, theoretical developments and the people involved in creating and developing the theories.
What role do criminologists play in the field of criminology? The term criminologist is used to describe any individual who is employed in the criminal justice field regardless of formal training. (Schmalleger) These individuals study crime, criminals, and criminal behavior. Those responsible for collecting and examining physical evidence of crime are referred to as criminalists. Criminologists perform a variety of activities such as data gathering, data analysis, theory construction, hypothesis testing, social policy creation, public advocacy and public service, analysis of crime patterns and trends, education and training, and threat assessment and risk analysis.
Criminology is categorized into three schools of thought: Classical, Positivist, and Chicago. These three schools fit into three different theoretical developments in criminology. However, there are six categories that fit into the theoretical developments. The first development is the Classical School which consists of classical and neoclassical criminology. The classical school of criminological thought developed as a result of the Enlightenment or Age of Reason, a highly significant social movement in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Enlightenments encouraged people to think for themselves rather obeying orders given by the State or Church. (Williams) Thinkers such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Charles-Louis de Secondat Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Thomas Paine were all part of the Enlightenment. However, two famous Enlightenment theorists responsible for shaping crime and control and criminological thinking were Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. Cesare Beccaria believed that punishment should be deterrence rather than retribution, and punishment should be imposed to prevent offenders from committing additional crimes. Acts of revenge are not as important as crime prevention. According to Beccaria, punishment should be swift and certain and should only be severe enough to outweigh personal benefits. Punishments should fit the crimes.
Jeremy Bentham was a utilitarian idealist. His approach to classical criminology was termed hedonistic calculus or utilitarianism. This term argued that human behavior is led by the desire for individuals to avoid unpleasantness and choose a life that takes full advantage of pleasure. According to Bentham’s approach to classical criminology, individuals were expected to weigh the consequences of their behavior before acting in order to maximize pleasure and minimize pain based on intensity, duration, certainty, and...

Find Another Essay On Aspects of Criminology

Critically evaluate the strengths and limitations of classical criminology for explaining Youth Crime in Melbourne - Essay

1547 words - 7 pages acting as a deterrence; the growing concerns regarding juvenile delinquency, and why it is on the rise. However, there are weaknesses and limitations to classical criminology that will be identified in this essay as well. Certain aspects of youth crime in Melbourne are better explained with other theories such as the labelling theory. Classical criminology theory consists of four main aspects. Firstly, classical criminologists believe that

The Positivist School of Criminology Essay

1096 words - 4 pages positive school. His theory was popular because it was based on mental aspects of an individual instead of just their physical appearance. All three of these criminologist were instrumental in forming the positive school of criminology. While the positive school was very influential in the field of criminology, it was not perfect and there are several areas of criminal behavior it did not address or explain. One aspect of criminal society

Biological/psychological factors of crime

1205 words - 5 pages IntroductionThe Positivist School of Criminology rejected the Classical School's idea that all crime resulted from a choice that could potentially be made. Though they did not disagree with the Classical School that most crime could be explained through "human nature," they argued that the most serious crimes were committed by individuals who were "primitive" or "atavistic"--that is, who failed to evolve to a fully human and civilized state

As there has been much writing and discussion about crime, why has there been little success in its reduction?

2409 words - 10 pages serves as an exquisite example of how, despite large amounts of thinking, writing and debate about criminology and the causes of crime, excessive reliance on approaches which focussed too heavily on singular aspects of the processes involved in the causes of crime and deviance lead to widespread failures in their reduction. These theories and resulting criminal justice practices simply failed to recognise the complexity of the causes of crime. The

International Law Threatens Western Countries

1375 words - 6 pages control of two or more nations on a cross-cultural and cross-national basis; it enables criminologists to identify differences and similarities in terms of crime patterns (Howard and Newman et al, 2000:140). Howard and Newman et al argue that the greatest advantage for comparative criminology is the great diversity that exists cross-nationally in order to act as the indicator in social, economic and political aspects (Howard and Newman et al, 2000

Cultural Criminology: A New Perspective to Understanding Crime and Deviance

2602 words - 10 pages meaning of certain aspects of a subculture can play an active role in society and the construction of crime, not only by explaining why crime is committed, but also how crime is controlled. This essay will explain what cultural criminology is by using The 1989 Hillsborough disaster as an example in illustrating some of the research findings by cultural criminologists. There have been many different topic areas which have been examined and explored

Sexual Assault in Australia

1044 words - 4 pages the reasons why some avoid conviction and criminology has provided approaches to understand this. Both biological and psychological aspects of the individual are often associated with crime by the classical school of criminology and this is reflected in the profiling of sexual assault offenders. Perpetrators of crime are associated with low intelligence in verbal and performance as discovered by a survey of adolescent offenders in NSW prisons

Intersectionality in the Criminal Justice System

2262 words - 9 pages disproportionate crimes are also important aspects of intersectionality in Australia as they aim to resolve challenges women and the mentally disabled encounter during processing through court in the criminal justice system. Gender is predominating in the criminal justice system and sexual assault exemplifies the contrast found between the traditional and non-traditional justice systems employed over time. Sexual assault poses a social threat to

Criminal Profiling

1877 words - 8 pages , offender profiling, psychological profiling and criminal investigative analysis. All the terms listed above are used inconsistently and interchangeably. Modern criminal profiling is owing to a diverse history grounded in the study of criminal behavior (criminology), the study of mental illness (psychology and psychiatry), and the examination of physical evidence (the forensic sciences). (Turvey) There are four very important elements that

The History of Crime and Its Evolution

1758 words - 8 pages Presidential Address. Criminology, 38 (1), 1-24. Manchester, C. (1991). A History of the Crime of Obscene Libel. The Journal of Legal History, 12 (1), 36-57. Thoumi, F. E. (2009). Drug Lords. The Rise and Fall of the Cali Cartel. The Richest, Most Powerful Crime Syndicate in History. Global Crime, 10 (3), 288-290. Voronin, Y. (1997). The Emerging Criminal State: Economic and Political Aspects of Organized Crime. Trends in Organized Crime, 3 (1), 40.

The Revival of the Strain Theory

1535 words - 6 pages theory. GST was the first supposition that was not tied to social class or cultural variables as it was in previous implications of Émile Durkheim’s anomie theory. Instead, Agnew’s theory refocused on societal norms that affect juveniles. Jang and Johnson (2003) noted GST as being “one of the most important theoretical developments in criminology over the past ten years.” In his theory, Agnew (1992) identified three major types of strain

Similar Essays

Aspects Of Criminology Essay

1325 words - 6 pages Criminology is defined as an interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior including their forms, causes, legal aspects, and control. There are many aspects in the field of criminology. These aspects include the areas of research involved, the criminology schools of thought, theoretical developments and the people involved in creating and developing the theories. What role do criminologists play

The American Society Of Criminology Essay

1686 words - 7 pages purpose is to educate, research, and study the various aspects of the science, and to transmit ideas and information of criminological development and theories into governmental practices. There are five divisions of the organization, the Division on Corrections and Sentencing, the Division of Critical Criminology, the Division of International Criminology, the Division of People of Color and Crime, and the Division of Women and Crime. Each

"Walklate (1998: Vi) Suggests Feminism And Criminology May Be Contradictions In Terms. To What Extent Do You Agree With Her?

1708 words - 7 pages criminological perspective it has many more definitions and takes on many subcategories, for example; liberal feminism, radical feminism, socialist feminism and postmodern feminism to name the four identified by Walklate (1998).As this essay title is particularly diverse it is not possible to adequately cover all aspects or subcategories of feminism in relation to its contradictory nature to criminology therefore this essay will be based around liberal

A Critical Evaluation Of The Issue Of Taking An Item From Work

2290 words - 9 pages criminology is an adaptation of interactionist criminology, however critical criminology focuses on the political aspects. It similarly suggests that individuals engage in meaningful activity, which can be defined as criminal by other outside members (Burke 2009). These outside members are usually those with political status. However, it is definitive on the idea that every individual is responsible for their own actions (Lawson and Heaton 1998). Left