1. In terms of human language Discreteness means the distinct difference of the sounds of letters put together in different ways to create a meaning. For example the pronunciations of Crab and Grab only have distinct meanings due to the difference between the sounds of the letters C and the G. Another example could be how English speakers are able to identify the sounds in cot as three unique sounds- each sound representative of an individual letter C, O, T, together they form the meaning of a small child’s bed.
2. Arbitrariness can be seen as a property in language where a word or linguistic form does not in any way match or relate to the object of which it refers to. In other words it is ...view middle of the document...
Another example could be Smoke. This is a non-arbitrary symbol as smoke can almost always be connected to fire or burning. With the exception of things such as steam rooms where the smoke is vapour. Smoke can symbolise to a person that maybe their dinner is burning and that they need to turn it off or that there is a fire and they need to leave or be cautious. This could be seen as an arbitrary symbol due to the fact that people are taught that smoke generally means fire but it is mainly non-arbitrary due to the obvious manner of the symbol/sign.
3. I understand Communicative Competence to be the ability for us to choose and use language features such as grammar and social knowledge correctly/appropriately. Communicative Competence differs to Grammatical Competence as Grammatical Competence is purely the knowledge of how to use vocabulary, pronunciation, syntax, sentence structure etc. whereas Communicative Competence combines both these grammatical aspects of language with the use of social knowledge such as how and when to use specific utterances appropriately. For example simply making eye contact during a speech may be seen as engaging with the listener but in some cultures such as China and Japan, where is it seen as inconsiderate (knowing who you are talking to and where they are from). This is crucial because some communities, cultures and societies may use different language terms or features that may not be appropriate. Becoming culturally aware can increase communication competence. For example if a stranger were to say “Hello, Danielle, have you finished your report?” this is grammatically correct, but also by using the persons first name rather than pronouncing them as “Miss/Mrs Harman” could be seen as not taking into consideration of the different cultures that the person may come from (lacking social competence) - in Japan, unless you are speaking to your close friend or family member it is considered disrespectful.
(#1) Scenario: You meet with some colleagues from work to plan a social event, the end of year Christmas Function. Apart from you, the group consists of; a 58 year-old male New Zealander who is in charge of your work section, a female colleague from China in her early twenties, a female worker in her thirties who is a mother of two pre-schoolers, and a 17 year old male junior assistant. The meeting takes place in the cafeteria at lunchtime.
1. Some of the potential barriers to communication from the above scenario could include Status effects, Cultural differences, Semantic Problems, and physical distractions.
Status effects could be a communication barrier for everyone due to the hierarchy of the company and each person’s importance. Both the 58 year old male from NZ and the 17 year old male are good examples of how status effects are barriers to communication. The 58 year old male is in charge of the work section so therefore holds a higher status than the others, this could lead to him being the one...