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Assessment: Infectious Diseases, Antibiotic Resistance, Cataracts

1311 words - 5 pages

PART 1 INFECTIOUS DISEASES: TUBERCULOSIS(TB)CAUSES:Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by an infecting agent(pathogen). The pathogen that causes tuberculosis is in the form of rod-shaped bacteria and is known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.HOST:The tubercle bacillus affects the human host cell. The host-microbe intercation regarding tuberculosis is still unknown and is being researched at the moment.TRANSMISSION:The tuberculosis disease is transmitted via airborne processes. When a person has lung or throat cancer, sneezing or coughing causes the germ tubercle bacillus to become airborne. This germ is then inhaled from the air by another person and will become infected. In countries other than Australia, tuberculosis can be spread by drinking unpasteurised milk attained from infected feedstock.SYMPTOMS:COUGH: Constant coughing a common symptom of tuberculosis. This coughing is intense and contains thich cloudy mucus. This mucus is sometimes ejected with blood.FATIGUE AND WEAKNESS: A tuberculosis patient never feels energetic. There will be a constant feeling of sluggishness where the patient is unable to undertake and complete daily activities. A tuberculosis patient feels the need to sleep.HOST RESPONSE:When the tubercle bacillus is inhaled, it may penetrate beyond the air ways into alveolar sacs in lungs. Then macrophages usually will engulf the bacillus and digest it via phagocytosis. The bacterium resist digestion and begin multiplying. Some macrohages carry these bacterium and travel through bloodstream. After weeks of exposure sweeling occurs in the alveolar sacs where bacterium containing macrophages clump together causing destruction of surrounding lung tissue. The tough tissue around the tubercle prevents bacilli from attaining oxygen and therefore prevents growth of bacilli. The bacilli remain alive but inactive. This is called Latent-TB infection.TREATMENT:The treatment of tuberculosis involves the consumption of 3-4 types of antibiotics for a prolonged period of 6-12 months, These antibiotica must be regularly and constantly taken without stopping for even a day. A strike in medicine consumption might lead to multi-grug resitant bacterium which is really dangerous for the patient. The 2 most common antibiotics used for TB are:-- isoniazid-- pyrazinamideThese antibiotics are most useful as they destroy the dormant bacteria which might become active in the future.If in a patient antibiotic based treatment has no effect, then the only other alternative is surgical treatment. Surgical treatment involves the removal of the infected tissue from the patient's body. The surgical procedure is useful because the TB inected tissue causes the symptoms and pain. When the tissue is removed, the person feels better and becomes non-contagious.PREVENTION:The main form of prevention in kids is vaccination. Vaccination is used for kids while there are no vaccinations available for adults. The vaccine is called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin...

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