Assignment 1

1843 words - 8 pages

Tobacco is at the heart of the contradictions integral in the evolution of the globalization process heavily influenced by the trade, its labor and mobility. The liberalization of trade leading to privatization and the reduction of the role of the government has enabled the wide-spread use of the western-style cigarette to regions of the world where tobacco consumption had been previously contained. The objectives set by multinational corporations are unmistakably in conflict with public health, welfare and inequity pertaining to child labor; globalization of values, in regards to tobacco, such as social accountability and corporate responsibility are under severe pressure and scrutiny. The ...view middle of the document...

Yet, the first official tobacco plot wasn't planted in Norfolk County until 1920, over 100 years later.
It wasn’t until 1826 that nicotine was extracted from the tobacco leaf and discovered in its pure form; studies ascertained the toxicity of the chemical compound, later to be used as an insecticide. An anti-tobacco campaign was growing but regardless of this discovery, tobacco’s popularity steadfastly increased; up until this time, cigars and snuff were the most common tobacco products sold. In 1847, Philip Morris (P.M) was established in London, England selling hand rolled Turkish cigarettes. The Turkish cigarette is a form of productized tobacco that was ultimately distributed in England by Russian and Turkish soldiers during the Crimean War (1853-1856). By the 1900s, the commodity of the tobacco cigarette became the primary product and by 1901 six billion cigars and 3.5 billion cigarettes were sold in the United States. Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited, established in Montreal in 1908, took note of this booming industry and began manufacturing tobacco products.
Less than fifty years later, the Canadian tobacco industry hit an economic peak with communities and residents in the Ontario belt largely profiting. In 1970, IMASCO, the holding company of subsidy Imperial Tobacco Canada, was created to capitalize on the stable demand for the manufacture and sale of tobacco though British America Tobacco (BAT) later came to own 41.5 percent. BAT, headquartered in London, UK, is the second largest global tobacco company; the first being the Altria Group, formally known as Philip Morris International. Their globally selling brands, such as Dunhill, Lucky Strike, Benson & Hedges, and Rothmans, assist in positioning BAT as market leaders in over 50 countries allowing for operations in over 150 countries and as a result listed on the London Stock Exchange as one of the ten largest companies as of 2012.

Child labor is the most prominent discussion and on-going debate on the subject of labor in the tobacco industry which can be attributed its globalization. Based on data from Stats Canada, Canada imports “tobacco, unmanufactured, partly or wholly stemmed or stripped” from nine different countries including Indonesia. Indonesia is an exceedingly relevant example to the discussion of tobacco industry labor, pertaining to cultivation and farming, as it exemplifies the problems in non-westernized countries; mainly the exploitation of laborers and in particular child laborers.
The Jakarta Post quoted Arum Ratnawati, the National Chief Technical Advisor of PROMOTE project, “It is important that child laborers [in Indonesia] receive attention because they are often neglected and susceptible to violence from the industries in which they work.” The PROMOTE project is conducted by the International Labor Organization (ILO) who with assistance from the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SATCA) and local NGOs conjunctively pursue the end of child labor...

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