Assisted Reproductive Technology
One Word Essay
Infertility is a serious problem affecting millions of couples around the world. In the developing world alone about 186 million couples are unable to conceive their offspring (Geoffrey, In Vitro Fertilization 24). Infertility can be defined as the inability to conceive after one full year of regular, normal sexual intercourse without the use of any contraception. As shown in the fig.1, it is clearly showed that in recent years, the pregnancy rate has fallen as the infertility rate has increased up to 48% due to various factors, which could have affected resulting this data.
Although the causes of infertility cannot be identified for 10% of couples, there are some common causes that could have resulted the infertility (Fig.2). Many women choose to delay having a family in order to establish their careers. As shown in fig.3, the percentage of normal eggs produced is getting lower and by the time around 35-37, the percentage drops by more than 10% than the ages of below 30 which then cause the fertility to decrease as the eggs are not produced enough for fertilization to happen. The table explains briefly about common causes that could result in infertility in different categories:
Table of Infertility Causes
Categories Name of causes Definition Problems
Female Endometriosis This is when the woman’s uterine lining grows outside of uterus. It is one of the most common cause of infertility. It leads to scar tissue development which in turn can prevent the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes from functioning (which is essential for implantation and fertilization to happen)
Premature ovarian failure Known as early menopause. It is usually due to smoking, drugs and cancer treatments. stops producing eggs many years before she normally would (around age of 50).
Male Sperm problems Low sperm production can result from poor testosterone. Poor quality sperm may result from drug, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. If sperms are limited, then the chances that they will successfully fertilize an egg decrease. If sperm is not fully developed then it would be difficult for its tail to travel to egg.
Couples/ Unidentified infertility Combination infertilities it could be due to the overweight, and insufficient exercise Higher risks of getting sexual diseases
As the infertility rate has increased than the pasts, the infertility has become an ongoing issue and scientists are constantly searching for solutions. Research and studies have come up with some solutions and today more possible solutions are emerging and are called assisted reproductive technology (ART). Some of common types of ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). Firstly, ZIFT occurs in the laboratory, and then young embryo is transferred to the fallopian tube instead of the uterus and GIFT is...