Childhood obesity in school-aged children is very common in some of the developed counties such as United Kingdom and United State. The childhood obesity rate is about 25% in 2012 reported from IASO (International Association for the Study of Obesity). Childhood obesity is defined as 95 percentile equal or more of Body Mass Index (BMI) (Reilly et al. 2005). The birth weight of the infant is an indicator of the nutrition status of the fetal in the intrauterine life (Lakshmy 2013).It is believed that the increasing the BMI in childhood associate with the morbidity and mortality in the later life (Druet et al. 2012) The Kensara (2005) study suggested that the high birth weight of infant such as large for gestational age (LGA) infant is predicted to have higher chance to become obesity. In the contrary, small for gestational age (SGA) infant have also have high risk to becoming obesity (Kensara 2005). According to the kensara study(2005), the results show that the low infant birthweight have lower lean mass and muscle to fat ratio. Certainly, the growth factor such as the infant weight gain, dietary pattern and the physical activity level of the children should also be in consideration (Weinsier 1998).
Barker hypothesis stated that the adverse influences early in development and particularly during intrauterine life can result in permanent changes in physiology and metabolism (Boo & Harding 2006). According to this fetal origin hypothesis, it imply that the birth weight of the infant have a thing to do with the maternal health condition because it would affect the infant development through genetic mechanism in the critical period during pregnancy. The maternal obesity or over nourished of the mother can result in high birth weight of the offspring.
In this literature, the maternal factor that would possibly affect the infant birth weight and the relationship of birth weight and childhood obesity would be discussed.
2. Maternal physical condition
The maternal physical condition decide the utero growth environment, the quantity of nutrient can be absorbed through mother would be rely on the maternal body condition so that the birth weight of the infant would be affected in a large extent.
2.1 Maternal age
There are many studies already found out that the age of the mother in pregnancy have a direct effect on fetus nutrition. The mother age is under 18 (about 15-18 yrs), the mother still in puberty stage. Which also required an amount of nutrients to support the maternal own growth for instance, energy, protein, calcium and vitamin D (Jacob 2012). Both macronutrient and micronutrient are desperately required for both mother and the fetus growth,. Therefore, mother and the fetus would compete the essential nutrient (Strobino et al. 1995). In which, the fetus would pose higher risk in nutrient deficiency comparing to other fetus their mother are over 18(Eisner et al. 1979). Nevertheless, the biological system of aldoscent may not...