Asylums By Erving Goffman Essay

2279 words - 9 pages

Obiectivul principal al analizei lui Goffman asupra institutiilor 'totale' este de a prezenta detaliat situatia sociala a persoanei institutionalizate, tratata din perspectiva referitoare la implicatiile si consecintele asupra structurii eului sau.Intr-o institutie 'totala' sunt incadrati indivizi cu statut social similar care isi desfasoara activitatea si viata separati de societate, fiind nevoiti sa tina cont de regulile stricte care le sunt impuse. Goffman considera ca toate institutiile au un caracter delimitator prin faptul ca membrii sai trebuie sa-i acorde o parte din timpul si interesele lor. In general, institutiile 'totale' nu permit parasirea spatiului in care este plasat individul si , in consecinta, contactul social cu lumea din exterior.Exista cinci categorii principale in care se impart organizatiile de acest tip: institutii predestinate acordarii ajutorului persoanelor inofensive incapabile sa se intretina, persoanelor neputincioase care in mod accidental reprezinta o amenintare pentru societate; al treilea grup este format de institutiile create pentru a apara comunitatea impotriva indivizilor considerati periculosi; institutiile organizate pentru desfasurarea optima a unor activitati specifice in cadrul acestora constituie al patrulea grup; in final, Goffman situeaza asezamintele care au rolul de a asigura izolarea de lume.In continuare autorul prezinta caracteristicile generaleale institutiilor totale: desfasurarea tuturor activitatilor umane in acelasi spatiu coordonate de o autoritate unica; organizarea birocratica a unor grupuri mari de oameni pentru a satisface un numar mare de nevoi omenesti; distinctia fundamentala intre institutionalizati si angajati; sistemul de munca are o semnificatie diferita decat in viata cotidiana pentru pacienti, acestia fiind stimulati prin alte mijloace decat salariul; imposibilitatea constituirii unei familii determinate de viata in comun.Institutiile totale reprezinta in acelasi timp o comunitate de rezidenta. "Fiecare dintre ele constituie un experiment asupra modificarilor pe care le poate suporta eul" (p. 23)Institutionalizarea persoanelor pe o perioada indelungata poate produce fenomenul "deculturatiei" , constand in pierderea anumitor capacitati de a administra activitatile zilnice din viata obisnuita. Din momentul intrarii sale in institutie, individul este supus unei serii de transformari care determina schimbarea conceptiei despre sine. Identitatea acestuia este limitata prin interzicerea contactelor sociale cu lumea de afara, prin deposedarea de rolurile care corespund responsabilitatilor sale civile si familiale si de bunurile personale.Prin procedurile de internare, care pot include si teste de supunere, individul este transformat intr-un obiect si modelat in functie de interesele institutiei, in principal din nevoia de a obtine cooperarea din partea recrutilor. Fiindu-i anulate toate modalitatile prin care acesta isi crea elementele distinctive ale egoului sau, subiectul nu mai...

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