Atomic Theory Essay

1387 words - 6 pages

1.Democritus: Greek philosopher, a central figure in the development of the atomic theory of the universe. Democritus' knowledge is largely limited to untrustworthy tradition. He was a wealthy citizen of Abdera, in Thrace. Democritus' physical and cosmological doctrines were an elaborated and systematized version of those of his teacher, Leucippus. Democritus asserted that space, or the Void), had an equal right with reality as he convinced the Void is a vacuum considering it existent Just as the atoms are uncaused and eternal, so too, according to Democritus, is motion. Democritus posited the fixed and "necessary" laws of a purely mechanical system, in which there was no room for an intelligent cause working with a view to an end. As he explained the origin of the universe. The original motion of the atoms was in all direction is "vibration." Democritus attributed popular belief in the gods to a desire to explain extraordinary phenomena by reference to superhuman agency. His ethical system, founded on a practical basis, posited an ultimate good.2.Epicurus: The Greek philosopher and author of an ethical philosophy of simple pleasure. Epicurus founded schools of philosophy that survived from the 4th century BC-4th century AD. Epicurus sincerely adopted the atomism of Democritus, maintaining that all objects and events, including human lives, are in reality but nothing more than physical interactions among minute indestructible particles. As they fall toward the centre of the earth, atoms swerve from their paths to collide with each other and form temporary compound beings. There is no necessity about any of this, of course, everything happens purely by chance.3.Antoine Laurent Lavoisier: Antoine Laurent was known as a chemist, economist and a public servant. His most distinguished for this discovery on the role of oxygen played in combustion. The oxygen theory of combustion resulted from a demanding and sustained campaign to construct an experimentally grounded chemical theory of combustion, respiration, and calcinations. The theory that emerged was in many respects a mirror image of the phlogiston theory "He discovered no new body, no new property, no natural phenomenon previously unknown; but all 'the facts established by him were the necessary consequences of the labours of those who preceded him.4.John Dalton: John Dalton, an English chemist who put forward the idea those chemical reactions can be understood in terms of the different chemical elements being characterized by different weights. Dalton was able to explain the observed laws of chemical reactions, such as the conversation of mass in terms of these suggested that all matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass and other properties. Atoms of different elements differ in size, mass and other properties. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed and in chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated or...

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