This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Atrial Fibrillation: Causes, Pathophysiology And Treatment

2016 words - 8 pages

Introduction
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia. It is the most common arrhythmia and it has implications for patients and anaesthetists alike. The anaesthetist must take into consideration the physiological and pharmacological implications of this common arrhythmia.
In a healthy individual receiving a general anaesthetic, the anaesthetist must be aware of the causes and treatment of acute onset AF, both intra-operatively and peri-operatively. Patients with AF often develop a decline in left ventricular performance and other hemodynamic instabilities including reduced diastolic filling and tachycardia mediated cardiomyopathy1, all of which can reduce cardiac output and pose difficulties for the anaesthetist.
One of the characteristics of the common disorder, and perhaps the most worrisome for the patients affected, is decreased blood flow in the atria, which is associated with and allows thrombi to form. Embolism from the atria can cause cerebrovascular accidents, which can be devastating to the affected individuals and their families.

Even over the short course of my clinical experience thus far, various consultants have asked my colleagues and I about the pathophysiology of AF, the causes of AF and most have been asked to describe the rhythm of the pulse of AF. Hospital doctors do not have to look far to find a patient with the often symptom less disorder, and quiz medical students on it. A study conducted in Trinity College, Dublin by Finucane et al (2011) reported that 10.8% of Irish men over the age of 80 are living with AF2. They also reported prevalence across all age groups of 3.2%. AF is highly prevalent in Ireland today, and is set to become more prevalent in the country, in keeping with our ageing population. In this essay I will be discussing the causes, pathophysiology and treatment of this disorder.

Causes

AF can be paroxysmal, persistent or permanent. Paroxysmal AF ends without intervention, within 7 days. Persistent AF continues after 7 days and requires pharmacological or electrical intervention in order to terminate it. If the arrhythmia is not cardioverted by pharmacological or electrical means, usually after 1 year, it is termed permanent5.

It is clear that there are independent risk factors for AF including age, diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure and mitral valve disease6. AF is associated with cardiovascular causes and non-cardiac causes. Cardiovascular causes include hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathy, mitral valve disease, cardiac surgery, myocarditis, pericarditis and Wolff Parkinson-White syndrome.
Non-cardiac causes include alcohol, hyperthyroidism, pulmonary disorders, pulmonary embolism, obstructive sleep apnea, thoracic surgery, obesity and sepsis.

The mechanisms by which risk factors such as age, cardiac disease and hypertension cause AF are poorly understood. It has been suggested that certain ‘triggers’ cause AF7. It has been suggested that...

Find Another Essay On Atrial Fibrillation: Causes, Pathophysiology and Treatment

Causes and treatment of acne Essay

1410 words - 6 pages "). Propionibacterium acnes is just one of the contributing causes of acne. Some others include hormones, extra sebum, follicle fallout, and inflammation (white blood cells sent to get rid of the bacteria). All these causes work together to produce what we know as acne ("Causes and Effects: Causes of Acne4").Whiteheads and blackheads are signs of acne. Whiteheads occur when the trapped sebum and Propionibacterium acnes stay below the skin's surface

Bipolar Disorder: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

2197 words - 9 pages Contents Introduction 1 Questions: Asked when conducting an interview 1 Answers: received from the interviewees 2 Interview 1 2 Interview 2 2 Interview 3 2 Interview 4 3 Symptoms 3 Treatment 3 Causes of bipolar 4 Genes 4 Environmental Factors in Bipolar Disorder 4 Bibliography 6   Introduction Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized as parallel dysfunction in emotion-processing and emotion-regulation circuits, together with an

Schizophrenia: Different Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Methods

2034 words - 9 pages Schizophrenia: Different Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Methods Schizophrenia is a potentially debilitating condition that can affect one emotionally, mentally, and physically. The condition has been the topic of many conversations, studies, as well as on the minds of those suffering from the condition, and those who know someone suffering from schizophrenia. One of the most debilitating conditions, schizophrenia is comprised of 1% of the US

Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Insomnia

2436 words - 10 pages Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Insomnia Insomnia means having trouble with the quality or quantity of sleep. It can be caused by difficulties in either falling asleep or staying asleep. Self-reported sleeping problems, hating the sleep quality and day time tiredness are the only defining characteristics of insomnia because it is such an individual experience. The concept of good sleep is different from person to person. While

The Causes of Malaria and Treatment Options

1818 words - 7 pages mosquito bites you and it’s already previously bitten a person that’s infected with Malaria, you could definitely get it. However you might ask, what causes Malaria? (Malaria, 1120-1123, Encyclopedia Of Family Health) Well what causes Malaria is that there’s this group of parasites called plasmodia. For plasmodia to survive, it must depend on the organism since they need to feed on the organism to stay alive. However there’s not just one species of it

The causes, treatment and future prevention of schizophrenia

1331 words - 5 pages the particular characteristics and background of the patient, but with such little knowledge of this disorder, some cases go untreated and most schizophrenics experience relapse within two years of their being released from a treatment facility. (Davison, 288) Society must be better educated concerning the symptoms and causes of schizophrenia to ensure early detection of cases and to curb misunderstandings about this devastating disorder.The

Encephalitis: Causes, Progression and Treatment of the Condition

1794 words - 7 pages approximately 0.5 in every 1 000 000 individuals, most of them children, elderly people and individuals with weakened immune system (Gondim, 2013). However, the National Health Service (NHS) states that they suspect incidence is higher than official figures because many causes go unreported when the symptoms are mild (Landis, 2013). Encephalitis causes flu-like symptoms like fever and severe headaches (Gondim, 2013). This causes many cases of

Causes, Prevention, and Treatment Methods of Cervical Cancer

2168 words - 9 pages The purpose of this research paper is to examine the details of cervical cancer pertaining to the most prevalent types of cervical cancer, the progression of the disease, and treatment methods proven most effective through research studies. Cervical cancer is the mutation of a female’s cervical cells and is separated into four stages of progression (stages I through IV). The contraction of cervical cancer has been attributed to prior contraction

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

946 words - 4 pages serious complications. NAFLD affects 30 percent of the US adult population and is now the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the country. NASH can progress to serious liver damage, causing cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and liver cancer, which can lead to liver failure and death. Aside from these, NAFLD is also associated with serious conditions such as heart disease and stroke. What Causes Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease? The exact

Narcolepsy: Causes and Treatment

1217 words - 5 pages Abnormal Psychology Narcolepsy Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness. This disorder causes a number of symptoms that will be discussed further in depth later on but they are, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. Scientists and researchers believe that the cause of narcolepsy is a genetic mutation. This disorder can cause severe disruption to a

The essay is about the mental diorder, schizophrenia. Including who first discovered the illness, theories on what causes it, symptoms, treatment, and history of schizophrenia

1884 words - 8 pages has no motivation or interest in life (Torrey).What causes schizophrenia is essentially unknown. Several risk factors seem to affect it, the most notable of which are genetics and brain structure, others include, abnormal brain chemistry, birth trauma and environmental conditions. A combination of these is probably most influential. In addition to these, schizophrenia occurs with changes in brain chemistry, specifically, excessive levels of

Similar Essays

Pathophysiology And Treatment Of Hypertension Essay

1024 words - 5 pages of aldosterone released by the adrenal gland. Reference List Battlegay, E. J., Lip, G. Y. H., & Bakris, G. L. (2005). Hypertension : Principles and practice. United States: Taylor & Francis Group. Beevers, G., Lip, G. Y. H., & O, E. (2001). Abc of hypertension: The pathophysiology of hypertension.BMJ: British Medical Journal, 322(7291), pp.912-916. Foex, P., & Sear, J. (2004). Hypertension: pathophysiology and treatment. Continuing

Urinary Tract Infection: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Treatment

2151 words - 9 pages lead to the development of the infection will be discussed. This paper will describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the treatment options that were considered to manage the infection. Epidemiology/ Demographics Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are responsible for more than 8.1 million visits to physicians' offices per year and about five percent of all visits to primary care physicians. Approximately 40 percent of women and 12

Migraine Causes And Treatment Essay

2099 words - 9 pages doctors cannot pinpoint the cause of migraines in any particular individual because of chemical differences in all of us, but they have come up with certain facts that have helped some. This paper demonstrates a brief history of migraines, the symptoms of this disorder, what happens in the central nervous system, treatment for this disorder and finally a summation. History The American Heritage® Stedman’s Medical Dictionary defines migraine as

Causes And Treatment Of Phenylketonuria Essay

1585 words - 6 pages Phenylketonuria, a disorder in which by starting the treatment at an early age, and giving the newborns affected by PKU the proper diet; it is possible to prevent the brain damage that it can cause. PKU is a genetic disorder meaning it needs to be inherited from the parent to their new born baby; in order for the baby to be born with this disorder it is required for the baby to inherit it from both parents and also both parents being a “silent