Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder in which individuals display difficulty with attention and/or impulse control and hyperactive behavior relative to most individuals of the same age and gender (Barkley & Mash, 2009). Also known to be prevalent in conjunction with ADHD are significant deficits in many areas including educational, family and peer relationships. In order to diagnose a child with ADHD they must exhibit a number of inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive behaviors over a period of 6 months, which should be present in school and at home, and which significantly impair daily functioning (Daley & Birchwood, 2010). Evaluation for ADHD can provide a clear understanding of the functional impairment and a sound basis for initiating treatment, including which problems to prioritize. ADHD is most commonly treated with medication, classroom behavior interventions and parent training (Barkley & Mash, 2009).
Main behavioral concerns
ADHD comes along with many behavioral concerns. The disorder-related syndromes are associated with a variety of problems, including cognitive deficits, poor academic performance, and impairment in social functioning (Chiao-Ling, Yu-Kai, Yuan-Shuo, Chia-Hao, Chung-Ju, & Tsung-Min, 2013). Cara is disorganized and losing her homework which is affecting her grades. She is often blurting out in class and is very fidgety which tends to annoy her classmates. Cara is also having difficulty maintaining friends. Her teachers have described her as being socially immature. She has a history of being impulsive and getting out of her seat, she is impatient in lines and during transitions and does not follow through on her tasks and responsibilities. All of the preceding behaviors described are common concerns in children with ADHD along with a variety of others. The ADHD individual has difficulty taking turns, talks excessively, often appears not to be listening when being spoken to, and tends to interrupt and intrude on others in games, conversations and classroom discussions (Daley & Birchwood, 2010). Cara’s behaviors over the extended period of time that she has been monitored can have serious implications on her education and social development. As referenced in Daley & Birchwood (2010), the literature shows that school-aged children with ADHD experience an abundance of academic and educational problems. ADHD children are more likely to use remedial academic services and be placed in special education classes and experience behavioral problems that lead to suspension or expulsion. Aside from the academic and educational concerns, ADHD can have negative effects on the social development of children. According to McConaughy, Volpe, Antshel, Gordon & Eiraldi (2011), studies have shown that children with ADHD are more rejected by their peers than children without ADHD. Additionally, further studies have shown that children with ADHD are more likely than...