Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is often the center of ongoing debates in the medical field. Critics have described ADHD as a diagnosis used to label difficult children who are not ill, but whose behavior is at the extreme end of normal range ( (K. Lange, 2010). However, unbalanced chemicals in the brain cause ADHD. It is not something children can control and it is more than a behavioral problem. “ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems” (Furman, 2005). “The lack of evidence of a unique genetic, biological, or neurological pathology hinders the general acceptance of ADHD as neurobehavioral disease entity” ( (K. Lange, 2010). Therefore, the clinical diagnosis of ADHD remains and open question, which requires additional research ( (K. Lange, 2010). “There is no cure for ADHD and no single treatment for every child. Current ADHD treatments focus on symptom management with medications and behavior modification or with cognitive behavioral therapy” (Brain, 2012).
The study, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD are not new. Sir Alexander Crichton, a Scottish physician, published an inquiry in 1798. He explored and authored material regarding attention and its diseases (K. Lange, 2010). In chapter two, Crichton writes, when born with attention difficulties, it becomes evident at an early period of life, and has a very bad effect, inasmuch as it renders him incapable of attending with constancy to any one object of education.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder But it seldom is in so great a degree as totally to impede all instruction; and what is very fortunate, it is generally diminished with age (Crichton, 1798). Crichton description of attention difficulties indicates that he was describing the same disorder known today as ADHD.
In 1844, Heirich Hoffman, a German physician, created the book Fidgety Phil, which is popular with ADHD children today. It tells the story of a young boy who is often in trouble, because he cannot sit still at the dinner table. The book describes Phil’s reoccurring misbehavior and is not a singular event. This can be interpreted as an early case of ADHD (K. Lange, 2010). This book was the first of it’s kind to indicate that ADHD was a persistent disorder. The book also explores the family dynamic and their reaction to Phil. The family believes that Phil is misbehaving and that he can control his behavior if he really tries. In the beginning of the book the father seems frustrated with his son when he asked, “Let me see if he is able to sit still for once at the table” (K. Lange, 2010). This type of reaction is normal for parents, teachers, and others who do not understand that ADHD is a disorder and the child cannot control certain aspects of their behavior.
Sir George Frederic Still, a...