Course Project Part 1: Interview and Background Research
Argosy University Online Program (PSY381)
Instructor: Dr. Robert Gregory
This paper will attempt to describe Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The different causative factors, as well as the diagnosis of this disorder will also be described. Finally, the different treatments that are available for ADHD will be discussed.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is a psychological condition that usually begins in early childhood and often lasts into adulthood (University of Illinois, n.d.). Have you ever noticed a child having trouble concentrating, that can't seem to sit still, who interrupts others during their conversation, or has acted impulsively without thinking? Most of us can think of a child that has these problems, but for some children, these behaviors are uncontrollable and can interfere with their ability to form friendships or their success in school (Bussing & Grohol, n.d.).
"There are three broad sets of symptoms associated with ADHD: inattention and distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity;" however, it is not necessary to have symptoms from all three of these areas to be diagnosed with ADHD (University of Illinois, n.d.). The hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms are more prevalent in males and are more severe earlier in their childhood. Many children with ADHD also experience secondary problems, which can include academic problems and problems with their peers (University of Illinois, n.d.).
Children who have symptoms of inattention may be easily distracted, have difficulties focusing, become bored easily, have no organizational skills, or just can't seem to complete or turn in their homework. Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity may have trouble sitting still and being quite, or they may seem like they are constantly "on the go." Children who have symptoms of impulsivity may be very impatient and often interrupt people during their conversations (National Institute of Mental Health, n.d.). The DSM-IV-TR criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is as follows:
If six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have been present, lasted for at least 6 months, and are not appropriate for the child's developmental level:
Often fails to pay attention or makes careless mistakes in everyday activities.
Often has difficulty participating in tasks or play activities.
Often does not seem to listen when being spoken to.
Often fails to follow instructions and finish schoolwork or chores.
Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities.
Often avoids tasks that require sustained mental effort.
Is often distracted by other irrelevant things.
Often forgets to do daily activities (such as showering).
If six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have been present and lasted for at least 6 months to a degree that is not appropriate: