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Attitudes Toward Condom Use Among Women

1477 words - 6 pages

Today, women continue to be at risk for negative sexual outcomes such as contracting HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STI), and unplanned pregnancy (Wayment et al, 2003). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010), more than one million people are living with HIV in the United States, and of this number, one in four are women (CDC, 2014). At the end of 2010, women made up approximately 20% of new HIV infection rates, of which 84% of these new infections were attributed to heterosexual contact (CDC, 2014). Approximately half of the women diagnosed with HIV are in care, and less than 40% have the virus under control (CDC, 2014). Several studies have identified ...view middle of the document...

Twenty-five percent of single and married women reported using barriers such as condoms; 50% reported using non-barrier methods; and 25% reported using nothing at all (Wayment et al, 2003). They also found that 33% of single women stated that they have had more than one sexual partner (as compared to four percent of married women) (Wayment et al, 2003). Thus, developing culturally appropriate prevention messages geared towards White women may be needed in order to reduce risky sexual behavior and increase condom use (Wayment et al, 2003).
Regarding condom use, several factors can play a role in shaping women’s attitudes towards the use of condoms. Fritz (1998) identified numerous social psychological factors related to condom use among commercial sex workers (CSW). Thirty-three percent of participants reported using condoms during their latest sexual activity with a male (57% stated that their latest sexual partner was a male client) (Fritz, 1998). The authors also found that the greatest predictor of condom use among participants in this study were associated with commercial sex with a client; given that CSWs are more likely to use condoms during sexual intercourse with clients; if they have an increased knowledge about HIV/AIDS; if they believe that they are at risk for contracting the virus, and if they have a high level of self-esteem (Fritz, 1998). Thus, according to Fritz (1998), commercial sex and relational sex may stimulate distinctive cognitive reactions that can influence the behavioral outcome of using a condom (Fritz, 1998).
Moreover, Impett, Breines, and Strachman (2010) investigated the role of relationship authenticity and daily relationship events on the daily condom use among women using a questionnaire. Forty-seven women completed an online survey at the start of each for fourteen sequential days that examined questions related to the prior days relationship and sexual activities (Impett, Breines, and Strachman, 2010). The authors found that, relationship authenticity was related to condom use and participants who reported using condoms during regular sexual activities given that they are not on birth control (Impett, Breines, and Strachman, 2010). They also found that inauthentic women were less likely to use condoms, specifically on days when they have had disputes with their partner (as compared to authentic women) (Impett, Breines, and Strachman, 2010). Thus, improved mental health and well-being are usually experienced by women who bring them authentically into relationships (Impett, Breines, and Strachman, 2010).
“Sexual behavior and contraceptive practices are swayed by the power dynamics and interactions between partners (Do and Fu, 2011).” Pursing this further, Do and Fu (2011) examined factors related to married Vietnamese women’s self-efficacy in regards to their ability to discuss condom use within their marriage as well as whether or not they used condoms consistently using a survey (Do and Fu, 2011). They...

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