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Augustus Caesar, the Rome's first true Emperor was the historical
figure who had the greatest impact upon the western world between the
dawn of civilization and the end of the middle ages. Augustus Caesar
(31B.C. - 14 A.D.) was originally named Gaius Octivian, the name
Augustus was granted by the Roman Senate, which means magnificent. The
success of Augustus was he developed an honest government, and during
his reign, he rebuilt many structures to improve the Roman Empire,
which included temples and roads with classical style. He created an
efficient postal service that encouraged free trade among the region.
The soul power of Augustus had established him to distribute the long
standing of Rome.
Augustus Caesar did not gain his position easily. He was the adopted
heir of Julius Caesar, and he attained his position and held it
without meeting with the same fate as his Uncle Julius Caesar.
Augustus had to bring the people to his side and win the support of
the military in order to gain his trust from the senate. He had
raised his own military. Meanwhile, many of the senate was against
Mark Antony, who was the right hand man of Julius Caesar and also
wanted to become the heir. The leader of the senate, Cicero, realized
Augustus was a useful alley, ordered Angustus to make war on Antony
and forced him to retreated to Gaul, but Cicero failed to do so
(Scarre, 17). Because during 43B.C. "Augustus marched on Rome with
his army, and compelled the senate to to accept him as a consul"
(Scarre, 17). Later on, Augustus met Antony and Lepidus and the three
of them started to form a triumvirate, which excluded the senate
power. They divided three parts of the Roman Empire. Antony took the
east, Augustus took the west, and Lepidus away to Africa, since he was
no long an equal partner (Scarre, 17). Augustus started to gain some
reputation in the west; meanwhile Antony had left and conquered Egypt
in order to gain his popularity. Unfortunately he married the queen
of Egypt, Cleopatra, which was a disgraceful to Rome. Augustus raised
an army of his own to fight Antony. The battle took place in Actium,
and Augustus won the battle. In addition, Egypt was also conquered by
Augustus and it became a new territory of Rome. "Augustus's overall
policy was to keep the military establishment at the minimum necessary
to ensure peace within the empire and guard the frontiers" (Scarre,
24). The senate realized Augustus' power and invited him to become the
Empire of Rome and the senate did whatever he told them to do.
Meanwhile, Augustus' role of emperor was to never call himself
emperor. He referred to himself as "the first citizen". In this way
Augustus presented himself as an ordinary Roman citizen doing his duty
to the state. During his reign, he developed a fiscal policy, which
made the economy stronger by collecting taxes. He believed that
people's fortunes were going down the drain...