This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Australia: The Foreign Policy Of The Hawke Keating Government

1529 words - 7 pages

The paradigm shift of Australian foreign policy from reliance on security through ‘‘great and powerful friends’’ towards the formation and strengthening of diplomatic and cultural relations with the Asia-Pacific region began arguably under the Whitlam government and has since become the predominant focus of foreign policy for both major parties. As a result, there exists a latent similarity in the foreign policy of successive Australian governments across the last 40 years that becomes more pronounced when comparing them within their respective partisan delineations. Thus, the apparent similarity in the foreign policy of the Hawke-Keating and Rudd-Gillard governments is hardly ...view middle of the document...

Following the Vietnam War, the United States moved towards military disengagement from the Asia-Pacific under the Guam doctrine, taking a more passive role in the region and retreating from its previous unconditional guarantees regarding the defence of its allies. Australia’s traditional reliance on ‘’great and powerful friends’’ thus became outmoded, leading the Whitlam government to develop an independent Australian foreign policy premised on an increased economic and diplomatic engagement with Asia and defence through self-reliance that continued under Hawke-Keating. Australia’s economic development under Hawke-Keating began with the reduction of tariffs and removal of restrictions preventing foreign banks from operating in Australia, signaling the government’s desire to further distance itself from the protectionism and reliance on trade with the United Kingdom and Europe that had dominated Australia’s trade patterns prior to Whitlam. However, the Hawke-Keating government’s willingness to commit troops to the Gulf War illustrated a desire to retain strong ties with the US. An increased focus on regional trade began with the Closer Economic Relations trade agreement with New Zealand eliminating all trade quotas and tariffs between the two countries and continued with the promotion of economic cooperation with Indonesia through the Timor Gap treaty. On a multilateral scale, the Australia-led formation of the Cairns group in 1986 further reflected a governmental impulse towards trade liberalization and Australia’s economic engagement within the Asia-Pacific. However, the Hawke-Keating government’s most significant step in promoting regional economic cooperation was the establishment of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). By facilitating economic interdependence between Australia and the Asia-Pacific, the Hawke-Keating government aimed to establish an alignment of interests between Australia and regional powers that would ensure Australia’s place within a framework of cooperative security and mutual prosperity. In adopting this approach, the Hawke-Keating government also attempted to draw the more intransigent regimes within the region into rational dialogue through the economic benefits of trade. Of particular importance was the bilateral relationship between Australia and its ‘’nearest, largest neighbor’’ Indonesia, with the 1995 Australian-Indonesian Agreement on Maintaining Security, the first security treaty signed by Indonesia with another state, securing a ‘’warm and deep’’ relationship between the countries. In a broader sense, the Hawke-Keating government’s push towards economic integration reflected its explicit desire to establish an inclusive pan-Asian regional identity, and by lobbying for an Australian republic independent of its colonial roots, the administration complemented this with an attempt to develop a national identity more congruent with Asia. However, in its efforts to ingratiate itself...

Find Another Essay On Australia: The Foreign Policy of the Hawke-Keating Government

The tools of Foreign Policy Essay

976 words - 4 pages Policy is being viewed as an explicit plan of action adapted to serve specific purposes. Policy as design is directed towards the accomplishment of objectives, thereby generating expectation that those objectives will be achieved. In the context of international relations, policy can also be known as foreign policy (FP) which is accomplished by policymakers through the decision making. FP refers to the external relations of states or simply

The role of foreign aid in Australia

535 words - 2 pages by the Australian Government goes to places within the Asia-Pacific region with the biggest recipient being Papua New Guinea.There are three main ways in which the foreign aid in the form of money can be administered. These are: bilateral aid which occurs when it is given directly from one government straight to another. Multilateral aid where the funds are transferred t hrough an international organisation. And the third way is through a non

The White Australia Policy

1704 words - 7 pages The White Australia policyThe White Australia policy was an immigration restriction policy introduced by the Australian government in 1901, implemented to severely restrict the migration of non-Europeans to Australia, with the desire to maintain Australia as a predominantly White British nation (Tavan, 2004). Non-White Europeans were viewed as innately inferior beings that were unable to co-exist with the ideals of the Anglo-Celtic way of

The Role of Business in Foreign Policy

1665 words - 7 pages interests that shape foreign policy covers a wide range of political, economic, military, ideological, and humanitarian fields. This is the stand the United States has taken in the last decades in regards to foreign policy. While the US government conducts its foreign policy, the public is kept purposefully unaware of the motives behind some major decisions it takes and most of the operations related to foreign policy. Even though the US foreign

The Effectiveness of Napoleon III's Foreign Policy

1526 words - 6 pages The Effectiveness of Napoleon III's Foreign Policy In general terms, Napoleon's foreign policy was much less successful than his domestic policy was. Generally speaking, the aims of his foreign policy were to present France as the champion of oppressed people throughout Europe, to create new countries, which would be grateful to France, to maintain good relation with Britain and to maintain a balance of power between

The Success of Roosevelt's Foreign Policy

1141 words - 5 pages The Success of Roosevelt's Foreign Policy Roosevelt did many things in his foreign policy including: the building of the Panama Canal, the Spanish – American war. In this essay I will explain the failures and successes and then come up with a conclusion as to whether or not Roosevelt’s foreign policy was a success or failure. After Japan showed its strength against Russia the US became distrusting of them; as

Fiscal Policy of the United States Government

993 words - 4 pages called fiscal policy. Fiscal policy involves making alterations in government appropriations and income from taxation in order to “achieve full employment, control inflation, and encourage economic growth” (McConnel, Brue, Flynn). Fiscal policy in the United States really took a turn in the twentieth century with the passing of the Sixteenth Amendment in 1913 witch states “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on

The Role of Government in Policy Making

750 words - 3 pages the legislation. (Social Policy and Social Programs)The judicial branch of government has the most important role in deciding what programs can be used to help serve clients. It can also stop programs at any given time.Family and Children Services of Niagara INC., is influenced by the people of the community who may need help in many ways. The court systems play a major role in this organization by recommendations by judges for people to seek

The Detriment of US Foreign Policy in the Middle East

2939 words - 12 pages U.S; they have always shown a keen interest in the Middle East as they have to ensure the free flow of oil in the international market. America's consumption of Oil is quite high and thus even if they have to point fingers at the Middle East government and focus their foreign policy on them they will.AnalysisU.S Foreign Policy and IsraelThe US is extremely concerned about the security of Israel. This is based on three pillars, none of which is

The Hindrance of The Great Society Due to Foreign Policy

3967 words - 16 pages disregard it. However the war that he took on from the two previous presidents he struggled with. "Lyndon Johnson retained Kennedy's chief foreign policy and with their guidance, marched the country straight into the quagmire of a major land war in Asia. Johnson hated the war as a distraction from the Great Society..." (Unger 243). Since the 1958 Communist guerillas from North Vietnam had been trying to over throw the non-Communist government of

Comparison of the Government of Japan and Australia Legislative System

856 words - 3 pages Constitutional amendments, independently investigating the Government and impeaching Judges of the judicial branch convicted of unethical conduct. The Legislature also plays the pivotal role in formally selecting the Prime Minister of Japan. The lower house of the Diet of Japan has 480 members, elected for an unrenewable four-year term. In Australia the lower house consists of 150 members who are elected for a 3 year term which is renewable once. The Upper

Similar Essays

The Reason For And Importance Of Domestic Politics, Great Power Alliances, And Foreign Policy Makers In The Involvement Of Australia In The Four Post World War Ii Asian Conflicts

4797 words - 19 pages dynamic and fresh Labor Party in elections in 1972. Gough Whitlam was Prime Minister and the Labor government withdrew Australia's remaining troops from Vietnam.BIBLIOGRAPHYAustralian Treaty Series 1952 No 2, Department of External Affairs, ANZUS,pp.1-2.Albinski, H. S., 1997, 'Australia and the United States 'in Australian Foreign Policy, ed., F.A. Mediansky

Australia And Anti Communism Description: Discussion About How Anti Communism In Australia Influenced Australian Politics And Foreign Policy

1623 words - 6 pages government decided that Australia must prepare itself for any encounter with the communists and so devised an appropriate foreign policy which was presented by Percy Spender in 1950. He admitted to parliament that Australia was in danger and tailored the country's foreign policy to address the problem. The policy justified the government's actions regarding the various wars and operations that Australia joined, such as the Malayan emergency, Korean

How Did Pm Hawke Contribute To The Development Of Australia In The Late Twentieth Century?

534 words - 3 pages Robert Hawke has been regarded as one of Australia’s popular and effective prime ministers after the post-war period. His government carried out many social and economic reforms, and also developed Australia’s growing relationship with Australia. Many of his Labor government’s actions and reforms have successfully contributed to the growing development of Australia in economic, social and cultural terms.The development of

Was There Really A "Communist Threat" To Australia, Or Was Australian Foreign Policy Responding Only To A Perceived Threat?

1760 words - 7 pages Was there really a "Communist threat" to Australia, or was Australian foreign policy responding only to a perceived threat?By Alia HubermanThe fear of Communism clutched at the hearts of Australians for nearly half a century. It drove the nation to actions that today would be inconceivable - proposing a Bill to give the Australian Government the power to dissolve the Communist Party and persecute Communists, and conscripting troops to be sent in