Authors Essay

540 words - 2 pages

DelantyIdea as realitysocial constructivism ("became self conscious idea(...)no common European history: different languages different religionsjanus-facedchristianity was equivalent to medieval EuropeEurope is just an inventionLess subject, more product of historyFirst a cultural idea, then a self-conscious political identitylands in between !!! Poland, Czech republic, between Europe and Russia, conflicts all the time, push and pull between west and east (sometimes western sometimes eastern authority)Barraclough: (1963)negative integrationscientific revolution changed totallyunited Europe can be used as national instrument e.g. Charlemagne want big empire under his ruleunity always justified by conditions of our timecan't be justified by past2 big breaks in history: - scientific revolution - 11th century crusades: unified through Christianity for fighting against Islam, mobilization of Christendom, became more through crusadesChina: China change was not good, way more traditional than Europe, in Europe change was good, that's why scientific revolution could take place in Europe and not in ChinaBaumann:modern society is janus-facedone side dual revolution and enlightenment, and other side Auschwitzrationality central part of modernitytechnical, people become more and more rational and listen to hierarchy and thus Holocaust was possible(assignment)Baumann vs. Freud explaining holocaust(Baumann = rationality; Freud = aggressive instincts break free)Buruma & Margalit: 2002Definition of Occidentalism'hate on the west'soulless, mechanical, artificial(assignment)Elias: (1939)process of behaviour of people = civilizing processexternal constraints caused by societyyou have to control yourself because rules society imposed on youexternal constraints become internal straints internalized"selbstzwang" "fremdzwang" (in brackets)civilized societies = rational thoughtswho doesn't think rational= not civilizedthreshold of shame gets higher higherelement of control imposedcompare to catholicism: Catholicism = external pressure (confessions e.g.) Protestantism= internalization of external judgement and pressure'become own priest'Freud:...

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