Autism Spectrum Disorders Essay

1536 words - 6 pages

This paper will discuss the characteristics or Autism Spectrum Disorder, including its symptoms, treatments, and possible causes. This paper will also highlight the differences between Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) and Asperger Disorder(AD). Autism spectrum disorders effect one in 110 births in the United States. Autism spectrum disorders are severe, incurable developmental disorders whose symptoms, including impairments in social interaction and communication, emerge during the first two years of life. Asperger disorder distinguishes from Autistic disorder because its presence may not become clear until primary school, when its social and behavioral effects become problematic.
Autism spectrum disorders, a research paper written by Bruce Tonge and Avril Brereton, reveals that “Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders affecting approximately one in 160 Australians.” There is no single known cause for autism, but genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its onset. Although no case of autism is identical, several common symptoms help to identify that a person is suffering from the disorder.
For diagnosis of Autism, problems in communication, socialization, and/or restricted behavior must be present before the age of three. The Department of Health and Human Services explains that ASD usually appears between 12 and 36 months. Possible indicators of Autism Spectrum Disorders include the child not babbling, pointing, or making meaningful gestures by the age of one, the child not speaking one word by 16 months, the child not combining two words by age two, and the child's inability to respond to its name. Other indicators include poor eye contact, appearing to have impaired hearing, excessively lining up toys or other objects, not understanding how to play with toys, and rarely smiling. Some parents report that their child suddenly starts to reject people, act strangely, and lose the social and language skills they had previously acquired. Other times there is a plateau of development, which makes the autism more noticeable.
Language and speech of those with autism is delayed. Most children say words by the time they are one, but children with autism may not speak until they are five to nine years old and some remain mute their entire life. Some with relatively good language skills speak like adults and are never able to master the language of their peers. Most of the time they have “Echolalia”, which the Merriam Webster dictionary defines as, “the often pathological repetition of what is said by other people as if echoing them.” While children without ASD also parrot what their parents say, their repetition stops by age three. Not only do they repeat words and phrases, they also practice repetitive behavior.
People with autism frequently have repetitive motor mannerisms including hand flapping, finger flicking, and tiptoe walking. Repetitive behavior often appears in the form of obsessively learning...

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