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Automotive Emissions Essay

996 words - 4 pages

The aim of this assignment is understand how come we can interact with the engine to get better results in terms of emissions, efficiency, and fuel consumption.First of all it's necessary understand each emission, and what is causing it.The 'celebrity' of the emissions today is for sure CO2, this emission is causing the global warming. This gas comes directly from the combustion process, and can't be eliminated when we're working with both, diesel or petrol engines, makes part of the reaction, and only can be reduced. There are two ways of reducing Co2 emissions, one is reducing the engine displacement, the other is improving the fuel economy, both of them are related with the quantity of fuel burned as less fuel we burn as few Co2 emissions we'll get.Perfect Combustion:O2 + N2 (Air) + HC (Fuel) Co2+H2O+N2Unfinished Combustion:O2 + N2 (Air) + HC (Fuel) Co2+H2O+N2+Co+HC+NOxAs we can see on the combustion reactions Just CO2 is generated from the genuine reaction, the rest (HC, CO, and NOx) are produced because the engine doesn't burn all the fuel that is being injected, but we'll see further that we can reduce this emissions by manipulating the ignition time, changing the Air/Fuel ratio or using some combustion processes as CAI (controlled auto ignition) GDI (gasoline direct injection).The present debate about reduction of CO2 emissions makes improvement of fuel consumption a central topic for gasoline engine developers.A variety of technological solutions are available to realize this improvement. Concepts featuring direct fuel injection, engine downsizing and un-throttled control of engine load with variable valve trains are currently considered the most promising ways to achieve this goal, more concepts are under development include Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) and homogenous lean-burn combustion as well as certain combinations of these technologies.Within the European market, direct injection is currently the most popular solution; the downside of it is that a very expensive exhaust gas after treatment system is necessary to keep exhaust emissions within the emission regulations.As referred before downsizing is another very effective solution to increase fuel efficiency, by reducing the pumping losses sucking less air trough the throttle. The engine downsizing will also require a car weight reduction to permit to the engine small engine achieve acceptable performances, and also improve the fuel consumption which consequently will reduce the emissions.The use of variable valve trains is also a very smart way to reduce fuel consumption in gasoline engines, this system works with a smaller lobe for low revs and when the engine reach a determined number of revs a bigger lobe is used to open and close the exhaust valve, this will permit to the engine when revving low (around the town) to close the exhaust valve early enabling the engine to retain some of the combustion temperature for the new Air/Fuel mixture accomplishing the Controlled auto...

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