B Rapa Essay

1165 words - 5 pages

Plants use their root and shoot systems in order to obtain and absorb water and nutrients from the ground into their systems. Through the use of the shoot system is how most nutrients and some water is delivered around the vascular tissue of the plant. These nutrients and water are essential products for a plant to uptake because they are necessary for a plant to produce energy by the process of photosynthesis (Wiedenhoeft 2006). Nutrients that are necessary for a plant to carry out all of its metabolic, reproductive, and growth functions, are called essential nutrients. Micronutrients are the nutrients that are required in smaller quantities, while macronutrients are the essential nutrients that are required in much greater quantities (Bonner, Varner 1965).
Nitrogen is a primary macronutrient that is usually lacking from the soil because many plants require large amounts of nitrogen for their growth and survival. Because of Nitrogen strong importance in the survival and growth of plants, adding nitrogen to crops is a valuable and widely practiced means of fertilization in our world today (Zhu, Chen 2002). However it has been discovered mainly over the past decade that excess applications of Nitrogen to our environment can result in large losses and inefficiencies of Nitrogen in our ecosystems. This would in turn have an immediate impact on the quality of air and water, which would affect the biodiversity of our environments and human health (Goulding, Jarvis 2008). Through the process of appling Nitrogen fertilizers to our environment we are also releasing nitrous oxide into the atmosphere which can degrade the ozone and play a factor in the cause of widespread global warming (Milich 1999). The cry for immediate intervention and prevention of excess Nitrogen fertilizer application is a necessity, it order to reduce the environmental risk to our world’s ecosystems as a whole. The two main forms of nitrogen that plants use to uptake under natural ecological conditions are ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3−) ions. Nitrate is the preferred source of nitrogen that plants tend to absorb but when there seems to be a deficiency of the Nitrate in the soil plants will absorb ammonium readily through their roots. When ammonium is the only source of nitrogen available to a plant it can have a toxic effect on the plants. This is a common phenomenon shared among almost all plant species of our ecosystems, although the severity of the toxicity can vary (Britto, Kronzucker 2002).
Brassica rapa is a readily available vegetable and oilseed crop and it serves as an excellent model to use in the lab for genomic and evolutionary research because of its genomic relations too many vegetables including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, brussel sprouts, and more. Originally cultivated in Europe, the Brassica vegetables have now spread throughout the world, and are found in every single state in the USA. Along with its ability to grow to maturity in as...

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