Bacteria Associated With Vegetables Essay

3255 words - 14 pages

Erwinia belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria, class Gammaproteobacteria, order Enterobacteriales and family Enterobacteriacae. For the past several decades, enterobacteria that macerate and decay plant tissue, often referred to as the pectolytic erwinias, were placed in genus Erwinia named after the eminent plant pathologist, Erwinin F. Smith. They are non-spore forming facultative gram negative rod-shaped anaerobes with peritrichous flagella [ref??]. This genus contains diverse set of group of organisms since its establishment many new genera have been generated from Erwinia. Traditionally two species (Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi) are circumscribed as the important plant ...view middle of the document...

These analyses did not include clade I strains (E. carotovora subsp. brasiliensis). The reconstructed phylogenies agree that P. atrosepticum, P. betavasculorum, and P. wasabiae do form individual clades and place the brasiliensis strains in an individual clade.
Previous suggestions to separate the pectolytic enterobacteria into the genus Pectobacterium has not found favor among phytobacteriologists. Initially the suggestion was made by [2] , who recommended the segregation on the basis of the unique pectolytic activity of the bacteria. Consequently, [4] revived the suggestion to support the proposal by adding evidence from the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of various plant-associated members of the Enterobacteriacae. Although phenotypic characterization and analysis of a single DNA fragment might have been considered insufficient for subdivision at the generic level, the DNA-DNA hybridization study conducted by [1] provides further stimulation to change in favor of the new nomenclature. [5] have proposed several new species from new genus, Dickeya for E. chrysanthemi. A recently initiated multi-locus sequencing project, as well as DNA hybridization data from the 1970s supports the transfer of E. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi to two separate genera as well as the elevation of some soft rot Erwinia subgroups to the species level [6]. All the phylogenetic analyses completed to date have suffered from the small number of strains available for some enterobacteria species, which makes it difficult to determine the relatedness of these taxa. Unfortunately, the naming and re-naming of species has caused considerable confusion in the literature, resulting in manuscripts being published with names that were used for only a few years. Since Erwinia has remained the preferred name used in the literature the comprehensive phylogenetic study of the entire group of soft rot enterobacteria remains uncompleted [7]. The pectolytic erwinias are ubiquitous in environments that support plant growth, and because they may be found in association with asymptomatic plants, they have been viewed as opportunistic pathogens analogous to medical bacteria that infect only immunologically compromised individuals. Pectobacterium carotovorum, in the family Enterobacteriaceae, is a highly diverse species consisting of at least two valid names, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum and a suggested third taxon, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense [1]. Despite the lack of valid carotovorum publication, the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense name has been used in more than ten publications since first published in 2004 as Erwinia carotovora subsp. brasiliense [6]. Assigning strains to this taxon was based mainly on genetic information of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon, partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of housekeeping genes. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense was first...

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