Bacteria Associated With Vegetables Essay

3255 words - 14 pages

Erwinia belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria, class Gammaproteobacteria, order Enterobacteriales and family Enterobacteriacae. For the past several decades, enterobacteria that macerate and decay plant tissue, often referred to as the pectolytic erwinias, were placed in genus Erwinia named after the eminent plant pathologist, Erwinin F. Smith. They are non-spore forming facultative gram negative rod-shaped anaerobes with peritrichous flagella [ref??]. This genus contains diverse set of group of organisms since its establishment many new genera have been generated from Erwinia. Traditionally two species (Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi) are circumscribed as the important plant ...view middle of the document...

These analyses did not include clade I strains (E. carotovora subsp. brasiliensis). The reconstructed phylogenies agree that P. atrosepticum, P. betavasculorum, and P. wasabiae do form individual clades and place the brasiliensis strains in an individual clade.
Previous suggestions to separate the pectolytic enterobacteria into the genus Pectobacterium has not found favor among phytobacteriologists. Initially the suggestion was made by [2] , who recommended the segregation on the basis of the unique pectolytic activity of the bacteria. Consequently, [4] revived the suggestion to support the proposal by adding evidence from the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of various plant-associated members of the Enterobacteriacae. Although phenotypic characterization and analysis of a single DNA fragment might have been considered insufficient for subdivision at the generic level, the DNA-DNA hybridization study conducted by [1] provides further stimulation to change in favor of the new nomenclature. [5] have proposed several new species from new genus, Dickeya for E. chrysanthemi. A recently initiated multi-locus sequencing project, as well as DNA hybridization data from the 1970s supports the transfer of E. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi to two separate genera as well as the elevation of some soft rot Erwinia subgroups to the species level [6]. All the phylogenetic analyses completed to date have suffered from the small number of strains available for some enterobacteria species, which makes it difficult to determine the relatedness of these taxa. Unfortunately, the naming and re-naming of species has caused considerable confusion in the literature, resulting in manuscripts being published with names that were used for only a few years. Since Erwinia has remained the preferred name used in the literature the comprehensive phylogenetic study of the entire group of soft rot enterobacteria remains uncompleted [7]. The pectolytic erwinias are ubiquitous in environments that support plant growth, and because they may be found in association with asymptomatic plants, they have been viewed as opportunistic pathogens analogous to medical bacteria that infect only immunologically compromised individuals. Pectobacterium carotovorum, in the family Enterobacteriaceae, is a highly diverse species consisting of at least two valid names, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum and a suggested third taxon, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense [1]. Despite the lack of valid carotovorum publication, the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense name has been used in more than ten publications since first published in 2004 as Erwinia carotovora subsp. brasiliense [6]. Assigning strains to this taxon was based mainly on genetic information of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon, partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of housekeeping genes. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense was first...

Find Another Essay On Bacteria Associated with Vegetables

Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Essay

1052 words - 4 pages non pathogenic strains. Analysis of the genome suggests that there are a variety of potential virulence genes that have yet to be explored, including fimbrial and other adhesions, secretion systems, and toxins. Many of the virulence genes are similar to those associated with pathogenesis in Salmonella and Shigella. Most of them are found on pathogenicity islands from viral DNA that is transmitted to the bacteria through the activity of a

unknown bacteria Essay

1311 words - 6 pages usually last 24 hours. The type that induces vomiting is usually associated with a contaminated rice product, and the diarrheal form is more prone to come from pre-prepared dishes that were not kept at a proper temperature. To prevent these bacteria from forming, prepared foods should be stored in wide, shallow containers and refrigerated if they are not to be consumed immediately. Foods should also be prepared at the proper cooking temperatures

bacterial growth

906 words - 4 pages death phase, the food is complete depleted, killing the bacteria. The growth can be suppressed with any chemical that stops bacteria from reproducing but does not necessarily kill it. Some bacteria can survive in the environment by producing endospores that are highly resistant to hostile physical and chemical conditions (Bacterial growth curve (2014)). One type of measuring bacterial growth is the plate count. The two main methods of direct

Health Benefits of Vegetarianism

1588 words - 6 pages systems are able to ward off tumor cells better than omnivores. As a result it protects against colon, skin, and prostate cancers. Researchers suggest that red meat consumption is the dietary link associated with colon cancer. Therefore, this reduces vegetarian chances of developing colon cancer (Brown University Health Education, 2013). To add, eating at least one serving of vegetables daily women reduce their chances of obtaining breast cancer


4597 words - 18 pages growth of microorganisms, and that this growth is not due to spontaneous generation. (Yeasts and molds, commonly associated with fermentation, are not bacteria, but rather fungi.) Along with his contemporary, Robert Koch, Pasteur was an early advocate of the germ theory of disease.[20] Robert Koch was a pioneer in medical microbiology and worked on cholera, anthrax and tuberculosis. In his research into tuberculosis, Koch finally proved the germ

Antibacterial Soap

1256 words - 5 pages not kill off all of the bacteria. It only kills weak bacteria leaving the stronger bacteria to reproduce. As Rock and Heath found "triclosan, inhibited by an enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, produces a gene called fabl and that mutation in fabl gene causes resistance to bacteria"(4). This implies that antibacterial products are strengthening bacteria rather than killing them off. One problem associated with antibacterial products is

Campylobacter Species Kills Infants with Cholera Infantum

1047 words - 5 pages almost the eighty-eight percent from the slaughter chickens carry this bacterium. (Alfaro 2014) So the Campylobacter bacteria the encounter in raw meat, in the raw milk, mushrooms, shellfish or contaminated food and water. (Alfaro 2014) Also the Campylobacter can found in vegetables or a fruit because some of these have contact with the ground and from animal manure is spread to the fruits or vegetables. (Alfaro 2014) The campylobacter bacteria

Biofilms: The Who, What, Where, Why, and How's

574 words - 2 pages colonize many household surfaces, including toilets, sinks, countertops, and cutting boards in the kitchen and bath." Poor disinfection practices and ineffective cleaning often increase the incidence of illnesses associated with pathogenic organisms associated with normal household activities. Conversely, bioflims are also used in positive ways. Such as bioremediating hazardous waste sites, biofiltering industrial water, and forming biobarriers to

How to Prepare Food With Cleanliness

1951 words - 8 pages food products you use Dangerous foods are bacteria that grow rapidly and reproduce. Included in this are dairy products, raw seed sprouts, meats, eggs, sauces, beans, rice, potatoes, pastas, poultry, seafood’s, fruits and vegetables that have been cooked or processed. Generally foods with low water activity and high acidity are considered safe foods. Hazardous or dangerous is defined as any biological, chemical or physical characteristic that

The Roles of Microbiota on Immunological Function

1000 words - 4 pages significantly less in comparison to conventional mice, and the development of gut-associated lymphatic tissue was negatively impacted (Round et al. 2009). Potentially pathogenic bacteria were also not found in the microbiota of conventional mice, suggesting that an established bacterial community is essential for the function of intestinal immune cells to ward off invaders (Lee et al. 2010). These findings correlate with the importance of establishing

Antibacterial Soap Causes Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

1863 words - 7 pages is simply washing your hands with normal soap and water. When handling food, wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly and avoid raw eggs and undercooked meat, especially in ground form.  Bacteria thrive at temperatures ranging from 40°F to 140°F.  Decreasing the amount of time your raw food spends between the refrigerator and the oven will also decrease the exposure to bacteria.  Hence, simply defrosting a chicken in the fridge thaws the chicken

Similar Essays

Occupational Health & Safety: Biological Hazards

1755 words - 7 pages normally not associated with safety.Let's just take a quick look at some of the microbes that are considered beneficial. These are ones that produce desirable properties and components in foods. These comprise of bacteria and fungi, which can be either yeast or moulds. Certain yeast, moulds and bacteria are used to make foods that we eat everyday including beer, bread, wine, cheese, yogurt, soy sauce and salami. These foods couldn't be made without

Unknown Specimen Essay

877 words - 4 pages , and Tetracycline meaning that these could possibly be used in the treatment or in killing my bacteria. My bacteria were resistant to Optochin meaning that it would not work in treating or killing it. On an agar of blood, my bacteria were smear and incubated for several days. After it was analyzed, it was of a yellowish color and is beta hemolysis. This type of hemolysis could be associated with Streptococcus pyogenes. Another important pathogenic

Multidrug Tb Essay

1256 words - 6 pages due to mutations in the rpsL gene . PZA resistance may be associated with pncA gene . Can quinolone resistance -related genes gyrA . INH resistance is believed to be primarily related to gene katG . Here we only focused on drug resistance due to mutations in the katG gene. TB bacteria has its own characteristics : TB bacteria of bacteria specially constructed by wax so their resistance is very strong with the external environment when the external

Iron Deficiency: A Major Health Issue In The World

2538 words - 11 pages PGPR effectiveness in the control of soil pathogens. 5. Materials and Methods 5.1 Isolation of iron solubilizing bacteria from different soil in Saskatoon 5.1.1 Hypothesis Lentils growing in different soils have different iron solubilizing bacteria. 5.1.2 Objectives 1. To determine the diversity of iron solubilizing bacteria associated with roots of lentil using culture dependent methods. 2. To compare the iron enhncing capablity of