Bacteria: Helpful And Harmful Essay

1584 words - 6 pages

Gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella & E.coli, on the other hand, has lipopolysccharrides (LPS) as its main cell wall constituent activating TLR4.
Recognition of these MAMPS with a TLR by SIgA attaching to J-chain-containing Ig polymers and transepithelial transport via M, gives rise to induction of memory cells that change rapidly with the microbial environment (shown in Fig1) [9].
This is in contract to SIgA synergic responses of the immune system where systematic challenge changes memory cells in a slow process. This allows the gut environment to change without an inflammatory response when commensals and probiotics change the environment so that new bacteria can live symbiotically in [8]. Recognition via TLRs on dentricic cells causes signal cascades within the gut to induce cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial factors (Fig 2). Commensal causes the nuclear factor B(NF-B) to inhibits NF-B kinase and MAPK via TLR4 attaching to lipossacharides on gram negative bacteria [10]. Signals allow for rapid post translational protein modifications. This prohibits tissue damaging immune responses to commensal bacteria and allows their survival and the death of pathogenic bacteria.
A loss in TLR signalling can cause inflammation when the epithelium is infected by pathogenic bacteria. Paneth cells are AMP secretary cells in the crypts of Lieberkuhn, which defend the host [8]. AMPs are the primary interactions with commensals and host cells within the innate immune response and directly kill pathogens and create a feedback loop (Fig3). In humans they are secreted into the blood and provoke defensin production. Ablation of MyD88 in Paneth cells reduces the synthesis of RegIII and creates defects in the epithelial barrier against microbes [6].This allows the immune system to have direct contact with the bacteria to kill of the infection. This is not done by commensal bacteria as there is no contact with the epithelium and they do not cause damage to it, distinguishing the two immune responses as inflammatory and regulatory.
Nuclear oligomerization domain 1 and 2 (NOD) are receptors like TLR but are intracellular rather than bound to the membrane. They generate local and systemic responses to bacterial fermentation by-products such as short fatty acids and -D-glutamyl-mesodiaminopimelic acid that are usually present in Gram negative bacteria, for example E.colli [4].to determine environmental shifts in bacteria composition and modulation of neutrophil function. NOD1 signalling causes maturation of B cells that are needed for TLR signalling, IgA production and a pro-inflammatory response[8].
Acute phase reactant serum amayloid A is expressed when segmented filamentous bacteria (SRBs) are associated in the membranes of ileal cells (of mice). The expression causes dendritic cells to activate and Th17 differentiation, as well as, IL6 secretion from activated CD4+ T cells in the adaptive immune response. Because of this RegIII AMPs are...

Find Another Essay On Bacteria: Helpful and Harmful

Bacterial Growth Essay

1291 words - 5 pages spore forming type of bacteria. They are gram-positive and contain rods. Due to the fact that this bacteria is known to survive cooking, it is a common cause of food poisoning and diarrhea.Seratia Marscens a usually anaerobic bacteria which contains gram-negative rods. This bacteria feeds on decaying plant and animal material. S. marscens are found in water, soil, milk, foods, and certain insects.In spite of the fact that bacteria are harmful to the

Bacteria and Viruses Essay

1439 words - 6 pages Bacteria are unicellular organisms called prokaryotes. Viruses are pieces of biomolecules that cannot reproduce independently. Both groups may be pathogens, or may be beneficial- sometimes, the same species or variety may be both, depending on circumstances (Starr, C., and Taggart, R., 2004.) Throughout history, pathogens and more helpful species have played vital roles in the development of humanity as a species and of the human social

Human Microbiome

947 words - 4 pages can be helpful to treating patients with cancer. When cancer patients are undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, it destroys cancer cells as well as the good white blood cells that are the number one line of defense in the body. Not only are the patients losing their first line of defense, but when they are given antibiotics, it destroys the healthy bacteria and allows for harmful pathogens to attack. "'One of the first things we see in patients

Prompt: Antibacterial products worsen the problem of resistant bacteria.

691 words - 3 pages National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta says vigorous handwashing in warm water with plain soap for at least 10 seconds is sufficient in most cases, even for healthcare workers" (Hellinghausen).         It is amazing how advertising companies with devise ploys to sell new products even though there may be harmful effects. Most people do not even have a clue that antibacterial products can be harmful. Advertisements emphasize the fact that their products may kill 99.9% of bacteria, but what the public does not know is that .1% of bacteria can multiply and develop a resistance to antibacterial agents.

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

732 words - 3 pages Bacteria refer to a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms (microscopic organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus). They are very abundant in nature. For example, according to Christian Nordqvist (2009), a gram of soil can contain up to forty million bacterial cells. Bacterial microorganisms can be found almost anywhere and can adjust extremely well to surrounding conditions. Not all bacteria are harmful and even play an important role

Understanding Viruses, Bacteria, and Prions

1323 words - 5 pages those include properties and factors of viruses, bacteria, and prions. All of which can be harmful and helpful to society. Even with the newest of discoveries, our world will never completely comprehend the wonders of this world and universe. Works Cited • "Bacteria vs Virus." Diffen. 2013. Web. 21 Apr, 2014. . • Sissa Medialab. "The shape of infectious prions." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24

Basic discription of microbiology

2022 words - 8 pages bacteria.Engelkirk & Burton (1979) state that bacteria can reproduce asexually by simple division of cells and some bacteria reproduce sexually by conjunction. A bacterium is a waste producer of products and secretions. This allows pathogens to invade their hosts to cause disease some of these harmful diseases are Scarlet fever, an acute illness, characterized by a reddish skin rash, which is caused by systematic infection with the bacterium

Microbiology Described.

1970 words - 8 pages ) state that bacteria can reproduce asexually by simple division of cells and some bacteria reproduce sexually by conjunction. A bacterium is a waste producer of products and secretions. This allows pathogens to invade their hosts to cause disease some of these harmful diseases are Scarlet fever, an acute illness, characterized by a reddish skin rash, which is caused by systematic infection with the bacterium streptococcus. St. Anthony's Fire is

Experimental design testing antibacterial soap.

1316 words - 5 pages body made of 70 trillion cells there are 700 trillion bacteria. Most are not harmful, but others can be parasitic. Bacteria were not discovered before the time of microscopes. There was no link between washing hands and infectious diseases. Doctors would go from patient to patient spreading bacteria without knowledge of the effects of their indiscretion. This was evident in many diseases including puerperal sepsis, childbed fever, which was spread

Antibacterial Soap

1256 words - 5 pages we should work on limiting our exposure to too many harmful bacteria with traditional soaps, shampoos, dish detergents, and toothpaste. Internet Sources: 1)How Stuff Works Site, This site gives answers to simple science questions. 2)Health at OZ site, 3)United States Health and Human Services, This is a copy of the report

Probiotics and Prebiotics

975 words - 4 pages conclusion, to ensure we are safe from foreign bacteria we can nourish our bodies with prebiotics and probiotics which can fight off the harmful bacteria and leave us with a healthy digestive system, as well as good health overall. Works Cited Dolson, Laura. 09 June 2009. "Oligosaccharides and Prebiotics - What Are They, How To Get Them, Health Benefits." Retrieved on August 19, 2011, from

Similar Essays

Ritalin, Helpful And Harmful Essay

1685 words - 7 pages Ritalin - Helpful and Harmful When "20/20" and "Oprah" did segments about ADD on television, many parents felt that they finally knew what was "wrong" with their kids. They rushed to the doctor's office to find out how they could "fix" the problem. Most soon discovered a drug called Ritalin. It sounded simple. All they had to do was give their rambunctious or hyperactive child a pill three or four times a day, and magically he or she

Yogurts Effect On Constipation Essay

1840 words - 7 pages bifidus, are good for digestion. ("Island Farms Dairy") Bacterial infections may also be the cause of constipation. Therefore, if there were helpful bacteria to eliminate the harmful ones, then constipation may not be an issue; this is another reason why yogurt is helpful. Foods which contain lactic acid also help with bowel movement, such as yogurt and lemons (Griffith, R). "Yogurt can reestablish a colony of friendly bacteria in the intestinal tract

Biofilms Essay

1744 words - 7 pages gets closer to the walls. Therefore the sides of a pipe are ideal for biofilm growth. The effect of biofilms in the pipes is that the pipes will begin to corrode and that the water that passes through them will become contaminated with and increasing amounts of bacteria. As the bacteria increases, then the pipes will also become clogged with bacteria. This is harmful because the bacteria can be dangerous if the water is drinking water and will

The Health Threat Of Antibiotic Resistance

1011 words - 4 pages harmful bacteria such as clostridium difficile (C-Diff). The four “C” antibiotics that have a high risk for patient to develop C-diff are clindamycin, cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, and ciprofloxacin (Haddox, 2013). These antibiotics have the highest risk of leading to C-diff development, however all antibiotics increase a patient’s likelihood of a C-diff infection. This effect can last up to 12 weeks post antibiotic administration (Haddox, 2013