Viruses, Bacteria, Prions
Bacteria is essential to humans to not only be able to live, but also to be able to live on Earth. Bacteria is also essential for good health. The typical structure of bacteria includes; cytoplasm, nucleoid, flagella, pili, and a cell wall with a capsid. Bacteria is found in the Large Intestine, where it makes Vitamin K. It also helps provide a taste for yogurt and sourdough bread. Bacteria is used to digest cellulose for animals such as cows, sheep, and goats. Bacteria is prokaryotic, and appears as many different shapes. The shapes include; minute spheres, cylinders, spiral threads, flagellated rods, and filamentous chains.
Bacteria use Binary Fission to reproduce. In Binary Fission, bacterial cells double their size and split into two separate cells. Before Binary Fission, though, a cell copies genetic material and puts them on the opposite ends of the cells. As the division happens, the DNA isn’t damaged and the cytoplasm breaks into two. An example of a bacterial disease that someone can contract is Hansen’s disease, also known as Leprosy. Some symptoms of Hansen’s disease are skin lesions on upper arms, hands, face and legs. There might also be crusty erosions over the arms, elbows, and legs. Someone suffering from Hansen’s disease might also suffer from loss of sensitivity in the hands and feet. Hansen’s disease is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium Leprae, also known as M Leprae. M Leprae is a slow-growing bacillus and parasite. People can contract Hansen’s disease if they come in contact with droplets from the nose or mouth of someone with Hansen’s disease. Hansen’s disease is now very rare, and is treatable. In the United States alone, there are only around 300 cases reported every year. If a person has a Paucibacillary form of Hansen’s disease, then that means that they have a low number of bacilli. If the person has the Multibacillary form of Hansen’s disease then they have a high number of bacilli. To treat the Paucibacillary form, a person might have to take Rifampicin combined with Dapsone. To treat the Multinacillary form, a person might have to take Rifampicin and Clofazimine combined with Dapsone. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is also a bacterial disease. The bacterium Rickettsia Rickettsii causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. It is contracted by infected tick bites. The ticks that carry Rickettsia Rickettsii include; the American Dog tick, Rocky Mountain wood tick, and the brown dog tick. The symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever include; fever, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, and muscle pain.
For viruses, there are two life cycles. In the Lytic Cycle, the virus attaches to the host bacteria. The virus inserts its DNA into bacteria, and then the virus takes over all of the mechanisms of cells. The host cell is then destroyed, because of the virus reproducing itself. In the Lytic Life Cycle, there are many stages. Absorption is the first step. It provides a place for attachment and absorbs...