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Bacterial Species Essay

2319 words - 10 pages

Section I- Introduction and definition of a Bacterial Species
The field of biology has been a challenge for over four hundred years. An essential part of this problem would be the field of Microbiology. In Microbiology, there is application in which we group organism into different species. This application is called taxonomy. Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification of different organism in the same domain. With taxonomy, we see a short glance on how species are categorized but what about the other organisms that breed in other domains of life that cannot be categorized. This concept is called the biological species concept. From this concept a species can be described as a ...view middle of the document...

The first reason its presence in almost all bacteria, mainly in the multigame family. Secondly, the function of the 16S rRNA gene has been the same over the years, suggesting that random sequence changes have been accurate all this time. Lastly, the 16S rRNA gene is large enough for informatics detailing (Abbott, Janda, 2007). Another technique is called Horizontal gene transfer or also known as lateral gene transfer has had an important role in eukaryotic genome evolution, but we overlook the studies on the gene transfer in prokaryotes. The reason behind this is because endosymbiosis and the generally poor sampling which complicated the research on the gene transfer on prokaryotes.
Since Microbiology is such in a small scale standard. We must use equipment to visual enhance and observe the characteristics. The types of microscope that Microbiologist uses are light, dark field and electron microscopy. Light microscopes are used to identify on shape, size and visual appearance of the specimen that is being viewed through light microscope. With light microscopy, this type of microscope used light and lenses to magnify the image of the specimen. In addition we use oil immersion to better enhance the images using the refracted lights on the microscope (Madigan, Martinko, Parker, 2000). This allows us to visualize the scattered the light in the specimen. The second type of microscope that Microbiologist uses the dark field microscope in which the background of the specimen is black yet the specimen is in a color image. Lastly, the most common microscope that Microbiologist uses the Electron Microscopy (Madigan, Martinko, Parker, 2000). This type of microscope has much greater magnification and resolution. In addition this microscope uses short wavelength of electron and focuses on the beam of the specimen to brighten it up.
To actually get the results that is efficient and accurate, one must do special techniques to acquire the correct species. The problem is that the specimen is extremely small. An even bigger problem is that these small species tend to be mixed with other species in the same culture. This poses the problem of purity in cultures. So how can we alleviate this problem? One technique you may use called selective growth medium. This technique allows inoculating of aseptic organism, which then allows narrowing down the amount of different organism that can or cannot grow. There are other factors that can impact the selective medium technique: temperature control, pH control, and nutrient sources. The second technique one may use while doing the selective growth medium is called differential growth medium. This technique allows one to differentiate between microorganisms (Madigan, Martinko, Parker, 2000). The interesting part of this technique is that this allows you to differentiate the shape, size, texture, and metabolism. Lastly, many individuals would agree that aseptic technique would be the ideal way to keep the...

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