What is concrete?
Concrete is a composite material used widely in the construction industry. Concrete is basically a mixture of cement, water, aggregates and admixture (sometimes). Cement is a fine gray powder that consists of oxidizes calcium, silicon and aluminum. The aggregate used is normally gravel, crushed stone or sand. Admixture is a solid or liquid substance that gives a certain characteristics of the concrete. The cement reacts with water chemically and binds the aggregates together through a process called hydration during hardening or curing of concrete. It means that water helps in the hardening of the concrete while the cement bind the aggregate and also react with water to form a solid mass.
Concrete is one of the most widely used construction material in the world. The reason for this is because concrete is strong, easy to make and can be molded into various shapes and sizes. Besides that, concrete is cheap, affordable and is readily mix.
Concrete also has its advantages. Concrete does not corrode, therefore concrete structures require less maintenance. Besides that, concrete has resistance to fire, therefore it is safer compare to the timber structure. Concrete has also resistance to cyclic loading.
In this report, we will introduce and illustrate on precast concrete, pre-stressed concrete, ready-mix concrete, reinforced concrete, terrazzo and Urbanite in details.
In this introduction, we will briefly introduce the sub-topic or types of concrete.
Reinforced concrete is stronger than basic concrete. Steel reinforcing bars known as rebar is incorporated in the concrete structure to act together in resisting the force. The steel reinforcing bars absorbs tensile and compression because plain concrete can't easily withstand the forces such as compression and expansion. The rebar is used to prevent buckling of vertical reinforcement in columns and to resist cracking that might be the cause of curing shrinkage and contraction and expansion in slabs and walls due to heat.
Pre-stressed concrete is a solid structure whereby stretched reinforcement bars surrounded by concrete. The purpose is to increase the capability of the beam to carry a much greater load with the same amount of concrete and reinforced bars.
Ready-mix concrete is a concrete that is manufactured in a factory. The quality of ready-mix concrete is ensured because the concrete has been graded.
Precast concrete is a concrete structure that is manufactured in a factory. The precast concrete will be transported to a construction site. Precast concrete saves man power, therefore less workers are needed in the construction site. It also saves time and cost, thus the construction can be constructed in time. Precast concrete has also a better quality comparing to site cast concrete structure.
Terrazzo is a flooring material made by grinding and polishing a concrete. The concrete consists of chips of marble or granite in different size and color. Terrazzo...