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Battle Of Gallipoli Essay

1004 words - 5 pages

Battle of Gallipoli

By the spring of 1915, the Western Front was locked in a deadly stalemate. Enemy troops could stare at each other from across the line of trenches that stretched from the English Channel up into the Swiss border. Neither side of the powers could outmaneuver the other, which resulted in a deadly charge against one another’s well-fortified defenses. The Entente Powers began to search for another way to strike at their enemies; it was at this time that Russia found themselves threatened by the Turks in the Caucasus and called to its allies for aid.

Allied leaders, including Winston Churchill and Lord Kitchener, evaluated their maps to find a way around the impasse and ...view middle of the document...

Hamilton was given a force of 75,000 men by Kitchener and an additional 18,000 French colonial troops. He set sail from England without his staff and with the absence of proven intelligence data concerning the Turkish defenses. To add to his woes, there was an extended delay in arranging for the receipt of his ground troops, since those who arrived early at Mudros were dispatched to Egypt. This five-week setback gave the Turkish forces plenty of time to procure additional forces to counter the impending British-French attack.

Despite opposition, Australian and New Zealand troops won a bridgehead at Gaba Tepe- later to be renamed Anzac Cove in honour of the victory- on the Aegean side of the Gallipoli peninsula. British troops, commanded by Hamilton, planned to land in five different points around Cape Helles, but they established footholds in only three before asking for reinforcements. Little was achieved for the Entente powers, and the Turkish forces took this opportunity to send every available soldier to the peninsula. Hamilton was determined to use the two beachhead gains to extend the Allied position in the south, with attacks aimed towards Krithia. It was decided that three operations led by Lieutenant-General Sir Aylmer Gould Hunter-Weston would be launched upon Krithia. All three of these operations were pushed back by German general Otto Liman von Sanders and his Turkish defense force. Unfortunately for the British, the Turks were bringing forward additional reserves at a greater pace than what the Allies could manage.

Such an injection of additional resources, the Allies devised another major offensive. On August 6th 1915, a three-pronged attack took shape. It was composed of a diversionary action at Helles, movement north from Anzac Cove towards Sari Bair, and a landing in force at Suvla Bay made by newly arrived divisions prepared to attack. The landing attacks at Suvla Bay achieved total surprise and gave local commanders unopposed progress. However the wider offensive began to loose...

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