This paper will review five studies concerning the behavior and development of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The studies investigate how autism effects communication, socialization, cognitive development, and a number of other areas. Researchers use many different types of scales to measure and compare the difference between children with ASD and typically developing children.
Morgan, Lindee, Wetherby, Amy M., Barber, Angie (2008) Repetitive and stereotyped movements in children with autism spectrum disorders late in the second year of life
In this study there were three groups of children between 18 and 24 months of age participated. One group had Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), another group had developmental delays (DD) but autism was ruled out, and the third group had a typical development (TD). They conducted a study in which they videotaped some behavioral samples using the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS). This is a clinical tool that is used to measure repetitive and stereotyped movements (RSM) in young children. The experiment takes about twenty minutes to administer and uses communication techniques such as bubbles, different toys, cheerios, books, and other activities to promote communication is the children.
Luyster, Rhiannon J., Kadlec, Mary Beth, Carter, Alice, Tager-Flusberg, Helen (2008) Language Assessment and Development in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Participants were based on ages of 18 to 33 months and were picked from collaboration with early intervention in Massachusetts. The sample size was 164 toddlers, 129 boys and 35 girls. 142 were white, 2 were African American, 4 were Asian, 1 American Indian/ Alaskan native, and 15 were multi racial. The children had to meet the criteria for autism spectrum disorder based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G). The families who met these criteria were then mailed packets of questionnaires and were scheduled for two visits. The first visit lasted 2-3 hours and assessed the child in a laboratory setting using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Imitation Battery (IB), and the Early Social Communication Scales. The second visit was about 2-4 hours in a home setting and was mainly and interview of parents, primarily mothers. The interviews and scales that this was based on measures social and communicative functioning, developmental functioning from birth to 5 years 8 months, scores gross and fine motor skills, visual reception, and receptive and expressive language. The interview with the parents assessed the children’s personal and social efficiency in communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills. The packets measured between the ages of 8 and 16 months and were about vocabulary comprehension, production, and use of gestures.
Solomon, Marjorie, Ozonoff, Sally, Carter,...