Assignment One - Introduction to Psychology
With 2,405,518,376 (World Statistics, 2014) users around the world there is no doubt that some users are bound to develop addiction. “Internet addiction is when a person has a compulsive need to spend a great deal of time on the Internet, to the point where other areas of life (such as relationships, work or health) are allowed to suffer.” (Better Health Channel, 2011). With this scientists around the world are fighting to beat these additions. Two theoretical perspectives that play heavily into the treatment process are Behavioural and Psychodynamic psychology. “Behavioural psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on observable behaviours. Conditioning, reinforcement and punishment are key concepts used by behaviourists. Learn more about classical conditioning and operant conditioning as well as some of the major behaviourist thinkers,” (About, 2014). Where as, “The basis of the psychodynamic perspective is to understand what is going on in the mind of an individual or "to get in the head" of a patient to see what is going on in the unconscious part of the mind. This will provide insight into how the patient views his relationships, experiences, and the world and how that affects his preferences, behaviours, and drives, and therefore personality,” (Your Dictionary, 2014).
A well known theoretical perspective of psychology, Behaviorism was developed into it modern state with the extensive research conducted by John Watson. Watson’s exploration lead to the notion that behaviours can be “measured, trained and changed”(Cherry, 2014)
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified
world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random
and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations,
and race of his ancestors." (Watson, 1930)
The focal point of behaviorism lies in conditioning, being that all behaviours can be assimilated through conditioning. Watson believed that conditioning is the collaboration of the mind and its interaction with the environment. To develop behaviours we must undertake either Classical Conditioning or Operant Conditioning.
Classical Conditioning: Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Next, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response. (Cherry, 2014)
Operant Conditioning: (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant...