Motivation has always been a valuable concept in today’s corporate domain when it comes to revenue and production. As long as businesses have been seeking for ways to improve efficiency, productivity and quality within their workplaces, employees have had their own underlying expectations to satisfy. Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory explores the concept of employee’s motivations in completing a task influenced by their expectancy (effort-performance relationship), instrumentality (performance-rewards relationship) and valence (rewards-personal goals). By identifying these three key relationships and associating them to the internal focus of the workplace, we can begin to determine and understand the important factors that drive individuals to meet performance goals and their likelihood of achieving beneficial results.
The first component of this theory is expectancy. Expectancy suggests that the personal valuation of effort will subsequently lead to an attainable and agreeable level of performance. Typically, this effort-performance relationship can be “influenced by factors such as possession of appropriate skills for performing the job, availability of right resources, availability of crucial information and getting the required support for completing the job” (“Expectancy Theory of Motivation,” 2011). Through the application of these skills, resources and experiences, the individual can readily apply their newfound skill set to improve job performance.
This leads me to the second component of the expectancy theory, instrumentality. Instrumentality focuses on the perception of an employee’s belief that favorable performance will result in the acquisition of a desired outcome or reward. This performance-reward relationship generates the assumption that the successful completion of a task is fundamentally associated to the expected outcome of the condition. Management must be committed to fulfilling the deserving individuals reward for their meritorious performance.
The third and final component of the expectancy theory is valence. Valence evaluates the individual’s wants and their readiness to accomplish a task in order to procure a desired outcome or consequence. Respectively, once a task is completed by the individual and a residual outcome is realized, the valence is positive. The concept operates on the idea that individuals are motivated by intrinsic or extrinsic rewards that “may come in the form of a pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment” (“Expectancy theory,” 2011, sec. 2.2). Notwithstanding the individual’s speculation that task completion will yield undesirable results, the valence will incorporate a negative competence. Representation of this behavior is indicated by physical, emotional and mental stress, mindless monotony, work...