This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Behaviorism Essay

1486 words - 6 pages

Behaviorism according to Craig &ump; Dunn (2010, p.14), is defined as the view that the appropriate focus of psychology should be on observable behavior. There were several people that help contribute to the study of behaviorism; however there are five that were key in pioneering what we know today; Ivan Pavlov, Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born September 14, 1849 in Ryazan, Russia. His father was a poor village priest, who wanted his son to become a priest as well. Pavlov had planned to become a priest until the age of 21, when he decided he was more interested in a scientific career, (Crain, 2011, p.180). For most of his ...view middle of the document...

He also created Extinction: eliminate the learned salvation, stimulus generalization: salivate at like stimuli, discrimination: eliminate salivating at like stimuli, and higher-order conditioning: being able to get the dog to salivate at other things other than food with the same starting light, however he could not get the dog to go past a third order conditioning.
Edward Lee Thorndike was born August 31, 1874 in Williamsburg, Massachusetts. According to Reinemeyer (1999), Thorndike grew up in an age when scientific psychology was establishing its place in academic institutions and attracting college graduates, Thorndike being one of them. He became interested in the field of psychology after reading William James “Principles of Psychology” and after graduating from Weslyan University enrolled at Harvard in order to study under James. In 1989 he was awarded his doctorate for his study of chicks in learning mazes. In 1905 he formalized the Law of Effect, which was his contribution to the behavioral theory, he would put a cat in a maze then put food at the end of the maze and watch as the cat would try and figure out how to get to the end, after many times of doing the maze the cat would eventually learn how to get out without a problem. Further Reinemeyer (1999) added the following dates to be most important during the rest of his life, 1911 published “Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animal”, 1912 he was recognized for his accomplishments and elected president of the American Psychological Association, 1934 the American Association for the Advancement of Science elected Thorndike as the only social scientist to head the professional organization. He died August 9, 1949.
John Broadus Watson was born January 9, 1878 in Greenville, South Carolina. According to Crain (2011, p.183) he stated that while in school, “I was lazy, somewhat insubordinate, and so far as I know, I never made above a passing grade”. However he went to college at Furman University and graduate school at the University of Chicago, where he began doing psychological research with animals, after earning he doctorate he took a position at Johns Hopkins University, where he did his most productive work, (Crain, 2011, p.183). In 1913 he made a great impact on psychology by issuing a manifesto, “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it” the article talked about the study of consciousness through introspection has no place in psychology as a science. A year later he read the works of Pavlov and made Pavlovian conditioning the cornerstone of his thinking. In 1916 he began his research on children, it was then in 1920 that he did his most famous work the conditioning fear in Little Albert. Albert came into the study with no fears; he would give Albert a white rate while simultaneously hitting a bar behind Albert’s head, producing startled response, by the fifth time of this he was given the rat without the bar noise and he cried and ran away...

Find Another Essay On Behaviorism

What´s Behaviorism Theory? Essay

1002 words - 5 pages Behaviorism is a theory that states that humans and animals can be explained in terms of their behavior without reference to their thoughts and feelings. How a person behaves tells us about the person and thoughts and feelings are meaningless without outward expression. There are two kinds of behaviorism that I will discuss in this essay, Psychological Behaviorism and Logical Behaviorism. Logical behaviorism is the philosophical theory of

Behaviorism: Modern Applications Essay

1435 words - 6 pages Behaviorism is the study of human behavior and is based on the belief that all human behavior is learned. Behaviorism evolved during the 19th century and took hold in the early years of the 20th century. Notable behaviorists include Albert Bandura, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, Edward Lee Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, and John B. Watson. These men opposed the study of consciousness believing that psychology should instead focus on only what could

Origins of Behaviorism

2707 words - 11 pages Origins of Behaviorism Behaviourism originated with

Empiricism and Behaviorism

1390 words - 6 pages the turn of the twentieth century, the field of Psychology found itself in a war between two contending theoretical perspectives: Gestalt psychology versus Behaviorism. With its roots within the United States, behaviorists in America were developing a theory that believed psychology should not be concerned with the mind or with human consciousness. Instead, behavior and the actions of humans would be the foremost concern of psychologists

Behaviorism APA format

1818 words - 7 pages BehaviorismFor as long as history can date back, humans have always had a certain interest in what makes up an individual; who they are, and what aspects of there being, have set them apart from others within there species. As behaviorist see it, these questions are answered by nothing more than the world in which you were brought up in."Behaviorism, focuses on variables we can observe, measure, manipulate; and avoid whatever is subjective

Behaviorism and Human Development

1207 words - 5 pages Defining human development from a single dimension seems impossible due to the multi faceted nature of human beings. It is crucial to consider that no theory can exclusively determine the behavior of all individuals; however, my choice of Behaviorism, (Hetherington, Parke, & Schmuckler, 2002) most closely suited the population of children available for me to study. Caregivers model language and display emotion (e.g., surprise, anger, sadness

Cartesian Dualism vs Logical Behaviorism

1775 words - 7 pages this discussion are Cartesian dualism and logical behaviorism, both of which argue the philosophy of the mind in two completely different ways. Robert Lane, a professor at the University of West Georgia, define the two as follows: Cartesian dualism is the theory that the mind and body are two totally different things, capable of existing separately, and logical behaviorism is the theory that our talk about beliefs, desires, and pains is not talk

Behavioral Psychology: Behaviorism and Learning

862 words - 4 pages Behaviorism and Learning is under Behavioral Psychology. It is basically about how our behavior results from the stimuli in the environment and within ourselves. Behaviorism is based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. Learning is the lasting change in behavior that is the result of experience. As we learn, we modify our environment, the way we interpret the incoming stimuli, and therefore we interface

Behaviorism or Black Box Psychology

1364 words - 5 pages The idea behind the behaviorist branch is that they believe that psychology is studied through observable behaviors. The behaviorists were the first to focus on more objective research as opposed to the subjective research like the previous leaders in psychology such as Titchener and Freud (Lilienfeld, Lynn, Namy, Woolf). Behaviorism or black box psychology opened the eyes of the psychology community by showing them that they should not just

Comparing and Contrasting Structuralism and Behaviorism

582 words - 3 pages In this paper I will be comparing and contrasting to very different theories in psychology, structuralism and behaviorism. Under the theory of structuralism psychologists mainly used introspection to describe mental life. Whereas, in behaviorism psychologist try to observe the behavior of living things in the universe. Throughout this paper I will be looking into the validity and acceptance of both theories. In structuralism, psychologists use

Behaviorism, Functionalism and the Identity Theory

1134 words - 5 pages theories include behaviorism, functionalism and the identity theory. Like in behaviorism the theory attempts to reduce mental states into real facts about behavioral dispositions. In functionalism, which is a more complex theory, particular functional roles and mental states are identified by these functionalists. They therefore deduce that, any state responsible for an appropriate functional role is considered as a mental state; therefore, the

Similar Essays

Behaviorism Essay

1151 words - 5 pages There are many intriguing branches of psychology, but behaviorism captured many aspiring psychologists and young minds in the 1920s and 1930, and has been the dominant orientation since the mid 30s. Behaviorism was the radical revision of the method of psychological research. Consciousness was not accepted at the time and behaviorism called for the ban of introspection. Behaviorism is a branch of psychology that started with John B. Watson’s

Behaviorism Essay

1441 words - 6 pages Classical Conditioning and Behaviorism When taking psychology classes I have always enjoyed learning about behaviorism because it seems so cut and dry; if someone wanted to get a clear understanding or their fellow man, all they would have to do is sit back and observe. With behaviorism there is no Id, Ego or Superego to take into account, just raw behavior. While this approach seems simple enough, I feel that it can only offer an incomplete

Behaviorism Essay

1210 words - 5 pages possible to learn. These circumstances should be planned and dynamic according to the students you are teaching at the time. Every situation, class, year, grade etc is different so it is important to have a plan that works well for you. My views on behaviorism stem from readings, classes and workshops along with experience in clinicals and at my student teaching site where positive reinforcement is part of their motto.One saying I will walk away

Behaviorism, Criminology Essay

2191 words - 9 pages Behaviorism originated from the work of an American psychologist John B. Watson. He claimed that psychology wasn't concerned with the mind or with human consciousness. Rather, psychology would be concerned solely with behaviour. Therefore humans could be studied objectively, just like rats and apes.There are two events that stand out as foundations for behavioural therapy. The first is the rise of behavioural therapy in the early 1900's:J.B