This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Behaviorism: Modern Applications Essay

1435 words - 6 pages

Behaviorism is the study of human behavior and is based on the belief that all human behavior is learned. Behaviorism evolved during the 19th century and took hold in the early years of the 20th century. Notable behaviorists include Albert Bandura, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, Edward Lee Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, and John B. Watson. These men opposed the study of consciousness believing that psychology should instead focus on only what could be seen, heard, or touched. The result was a science of behavior that viewed human beings as machines (Schultz & Schultz, 2008). This paper offers a discussion of the evolution of behaviorism, the contributions of Albert Bandura, and the impact of behaviorism on modern psychology and life in the 21st century.
The major schools of thought which preceded behaviorism were structuralism and functionalism. Structuralism is considered the first school of psychology. Its focus was to break down mental processes into basic components, in trying to understand the elements of consciousness through introspection (Schultz & Schultz, 2008). From this form of new psychology on the structure of consciousness came functionalism which changed the focus to the functions of consciousness. Functionalism is concerned with how the mind functions, or how it is used by an organism to adapt to its environment. Functionalists studied the mind as a conglomerate or accumulation of functions and processes that lead to practical consequences in the real world (Schultz & Schultz, 2008). With the focuses of structuralism and functionalism being that of consciousness, mind, and soul behaviorism differs, in that its focus is on observable behaviors. With the irrelevance of consciousness to behaviorism a new form of psychology had been formed.
Albert Bandura (1925 – present) was born on December 4th in the small town of Mundare in northern Alberta, Canada. He received his bachelor’s degree in Psychology from the University of British Columbia in 1949. He then continued on to the University of Iowa, where he received his Ph. D. in 1952. In 1953 he accepted a teaching position at Stanford and continues on there still today. The concepts brought forth by Bandura that will be addressed are observational learning and self-efficacy,
Observational Learning: A condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others (Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2009). In this process, learning occurs when individuals observe and imitate others’ behavior. In 1961 Bandura joined up with Dorrie and Sheila Ross with their now famous experiment with the Bobo doll to see how learning was related to aggression. At the time, thoughts of aggression in children were subject by “the Freudian view that such behavior was the product of intrapsychic forces operating largely unconsciously. Students’ aggression on the playground or in school was seen as a recurring expression of underlying impulses requiring release in minimally detrimental ways”...

Find Another Essay On Behaviorism: Modern Applications

Classical and Operant Conditioning Essay

1191 words - 5 pages processes. Colarado: John Wiley & sons, Inc. Weiten, W., (2001). Psychology: Themes and variations (5th ed). Pacific grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Baldwin, J.D., & Baldwin, J.I., (1988). Behavior principles in everyday life (3rd ed). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. Cooper, J.O., (1987). Applied behavior analysis. Columbus, OH: Merill Publishing. Rachlin, H., (1976). Introduction to modern behaviorism (2nd ed). San Franci

Behaviorism, Criminology Essay

2191 words - 9 pages Behaviorism originated from the work of an American psychologist John B. Watson. He claimed that psychology wasn't concerned with the mind or with human consciousness. Rather, psychology would be concerned solely with behaviour. Therefore humans could be studied objectively, just like rats and apes.There are two events that stand out as foundations for behavioural therapy. The first is the rise of behavioural therapy in the early 1900's:J.B

When the Bubble Burst

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

phase diagram

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work of Art

1890 words - 8 pages different color scheme of each scene in the movie. The most memorable part of film to me was in the hotel scene, where dream-thieves had to fight in zero-gravity as the walls twist and tumble around them. That was exceptionally brilliant; the movie overall had elevated art in modern times and defied gravity within each scenes. Also, the movie had different interpretations as I was viewing. The confusing nature of the movie caused heat-able debates

Enlightenment Thought in New Zealand Schools

1594 words - 6 pages ://www.executive.govt.nz/speech.cfm?speechralph=35930&SR=1 McCulloch, G. (Ed.). (1992). Introduction. In. The School Curriculum in New Zealand: History, Theory, Policy and Practice. (pp. 9-25). Mill, J.S. (1992). Mill on liberty. In I. Hampsher-Monk, A History of Modern Political Thought (pp. 367-376). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Mill, J.S. (1992). In I. Hampsher-Monk, A History of Modern Political Thought (pp 400-402). Oxford

Psychological Egoism Theory

2240 words - 9 pages undertake. Hugh (1898) observed that altruism actions are a disguised form of self seeking pleasure nature of human beings. This paper will explore the points that support the theory this theory with expounded explanation that approve the plausibility of psychological egoism theory. It will also look at the old ideas and compare them with the modern ones. This essay will further discuss the psychological egoism theory is descriptive that carries

How Celtic Folkore has Influenced My Family

1587 words - 6 pages Every family has a unique background that influences the way they live and interact with other people. My parents, who emigrated from Ireland to the States with my three brothers in 1989, brought over their own Celtic folklore and traditions that have helped shaped the way our family operates and lives. One aspect of folklore that has helped shape my family dynamic is the Celtic cross—both its background and what role it has played in our lives

Julia Margaret Cameron

1406 words - 6 pages At a time when women were looked upon as being homemakers, wives, mothers and such the late 1850's presented a change in pace for one woman in specific. Photography was discovered in 1826 and soon after the phenomenon of photography was being experimented with and in turn brought new and different ways of photo taking not only as documenting real time, but also conceptualizing a scene in which an image would be taken. Julia Margaret Cameron will

Evaluation of School Improvement

1403 words - 6 pages , opportunities to share ideals, and allow staff to learn from experiences. Yet, staff needs to feel supported, have someone to listen and provide recognition for their hard work. Many of our students explore modern-day educational concerns through scholarly experiences in curriculum, leadership, mentoring, and teacher education to expand the learning community. Teaching is complex and grounded to ongoing reflections, which prepare students for

Case Study: The Benefits of Animal Testing

1757 words - 7 pages Nine year old Amy has already had a rough start in life. She was born with an abnormal heart that hinders her everyday activities. Amy is unable to keep up with kids her own age because she often tires out easily. As a consequence, she has very little friends and is often alone. Amy is forced to take different medications everyday just to survive. Amy’s life consists of medicine, doctors, and constant hospital visits. However, Amy is due for a

Similar Essays

Philosophical Assumptions Are Fundamentally Important In Psychology

2392 words - 10 pages applications. Singapore: McGraw-HillKelly, G.A. (1995). The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton.Neimeyer, R. A. (1985). The development of personal construct psychology. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska press.Pervin, L.A. & Cervone, D. (2008). Personality: Theory and Research. New Jersey: Wiley & sons inc.Rachlin, H. (1991). Introduction to modern Behaviorism, 3rd ed. New York: Freeman &CompanyRoutledge (2000

Skinner Essay

1717 words - 7 pages the origins and influences of both reinforcement and behavioral therapy Skinner In this case, we first discuss about the modern-day applications of reinforcement learning in education. Second, we will discuss about the modern-day applications of reinforcement learning in behavior therapy. Lastly, an overall conclusion will be provided to discuss about how Skinners theory of human behavior and how it influenced and evolved reinforcement learning

Digital Image And How Can D Dgital Aesthetics Be Described

2470 words - 10 pages produces the opportunity for genuine individuality or subjectivity of the post-modern digital artist. The individual self-expression is reduced to an ironic defect within the greater matrix of social programming and control, but is experienced heroically as overcoming by the person through creative self-identity. The glitch is the spontaneous ecstasy and spark of life referenced by the mythology and fairy tales of Artificial Intelligence in science

Intrinsic Motivation Is Ideal Essay

1867 words - 7 pages learning], and eclectic [combinations of behavioral and cognitive theories]"(Banks and Thompson, 1995, p.226). Behaviorism, in a contemporary sense, does not rely on solely stimulus/response motives as does classical conditioning. B.F. Skinner developed the concept of behaviorism that focuses on reinforcement as the only factor necessary to explain motivation. This division of behaviorism is classified as operant conditioning (Kolesnik, 1978