Belonging Essay

7159 words - 29 pages

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
9.4 - The Search for Better Health:1. What is a healthy organism?Discuss the difficulties in defining the terms 'health' and 'disease':'Health' is difficult to define as health has many components, such as physical, mental, and social, some of which are very subjective'Disease' is also difficult to define, as it also has many components. Because it is describing a state of impaired functioning, it depends on an organism's normal level of functioning, and what they expect their quality of life to be.Definitions:Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social health, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.Disease: A state of impaired functioning of an organism, including impaired physical, social and mental functioning.Outline how the function of genes, mitosis, cell differentiation and specialisation assist in the maintenance of health:Genes:Genes control the production of proteins in the body (needed for proper functioning) and so healthy genes ensure the correct proteins are made.Through production of proteins (especially enzymes), genes ensure the correct cell processes occur, maintaining metabolism and homeostasis.Mitosis:Mitosis is the process that enables genetic material to be copied exactly, ensuring the genes are correct and able to maintain health in their own wayMitosis is also the process that organisms use to grow, and maintain and repair body cells, maintaining healthCell Differentiation and Specialisation:These 2 processes result in cells which are specialised for specific functions in the body, such as red blood cells, etc.Together, all the specialised body cells work together in a coordinated way to maintain the health and proper functioning of the organism.Use available evidence to analyse the links between gene expression and maintenance and repair of body tissues:A healthy organism is the result of:The correct functioning of genesThe production of perfect copies of genetic material by mitosisThe expression of genes in cell specialisation and differentiationThe body's cells are always being replaced all the time, so the correct specialised cells must be produced to replace them.This is done through mitosis, followed by gene expression.Healthy cells have their cell cycle regulated by proteins that are produced by different types of genesDNA repair genes ensure that the DNA is accurately copied2 genes that regulate the cell cycle are:Proto-oncogenes: These produce proteins that stimulate divisionTumour suppressor genes: These produce proteins that stop divisionIn healthy cells, these two are balancedIn unhealthy cells:Mutated proto-oncogenes are called oncogenes and cause uncontrolled cell division (cancers)Mutated tumour suppressor genes lose their ability to control cell division. The rate of cell division increases and uncontrolled growth occurs - this also leads to cancers.2. Over 3000 years ago the Chinese and Hebrews were advocating cleanliness in food, water and personal...

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