Every organization begins with a dream. A dream created by entrepreneurial minds at work. When an organization is put together a person's vision is coming to life. The same vision foreseen in their dreams is becoming a reality. This is amazing but can be very scary as well as there are numerous risks involved that can bring on the worse of out comes; a shattered vision. A valuable key to ensure the vision does not crumble at it's very foundation is management. Management is "the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals" ( Bateman, and Snell). Now we must ask, is there one fool proof management blueprint to guide the way to an organization's inevitable success? As wonderful as that would be unfortunately, there is not. Through the course of time there have been numerous individuals that have shared their understanding of successful management with us. From their accomplishments we are able to select and integrate what works best for specific organizations. These individuals have contributed to successful management practices that are still used and built off of today. Among these individuals are Elton Mayo, Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Frederick Taylor, Harrington Emerson, and Adam Smith. With the understanding of each of their contribution, one can help to ensure their organization's vision will not diminish.
Elton Mayo was born in Adelaide, Australia in 1880. In 1911 he became the foundation lecturer in mental and moral philosophy at the University of Queensland. While in Queensland, Mayo formed a friendship with anthropologist, Bronislaw Malinowski. Malinowski had experience working with shell shock during the First World War. Mayo was very intrigued by this and was influenced to pursue his interest in clinical psychology and developed skills in psychotherapy. Mayo believed that the key to understanding true industrial unrest was to unlock the worker's psyche. Mayo instigates this theory in the Hawthorne Studies. The Hawthorne Studies were led by Maslow and produced the most interesting and controversial results in the history of management (Bateman, Snell).
Through a series of experiments the Hawthorne Studies showed that production levels were not effected by the factory's working conditions but they did find workers performed and reacted differently due to being watched. This is now known as the Hawthorne effect. Because of the Hawthorne effect, researchers were lead to believe that social and psychological factors played a larger role than physical or objective changes (Bateman, Snell). The researchers engaged in a series of work group experiments. Mayo concluded that these experiments showed that employee behavior and productivity is influenced by informal work groups.
Abraham Maslow was born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. Maslow attended City College of New York and began taking legal courses at night which he quickly learned was not the route for him. He then went on to Cornell...