Construction industry is one of the significant industries in Canada. The low interest rates in Canada fuelled the demand of housing, which brings the Canadian construction industry with a CAGR of 2% between 2008 and 2012 (Companies and Markets, 2013). The fact is that building construction has a considerable effect on the environment. It is a major consumer of raw materials, land and energy, as well as generates a mass of Greenhouse gas and other pollution (USA EPA, 2008). According to the data from Statistics Canada (2012), the construction sector produced 2.1% of total Canadian industrial sector’s GHG emissions in 2008. The purpose of this project is to convince the construction companies in Waterloo region to adapt feasible best practices for GHG emission reduction during construction process. Therefore, guidance for GHG emissions calculation and best practices should be determined firstly.
Before promoting those best practices to the construction companies in Waterloo, proper guidance of GHG emissions calculation should be provided firstly in order to help them calculate their GHG emissions and determine their problems. Considering this issue, some protocols can be used, which include inventory, toolsets and guidance for GHG emissions calculation (Matthews, Hendrickson & Weber, 2008).
Best practices are defined as methods or technique that are consistently verified to be superior to other means, and can sometimes be used for benchmarking (Business Dictionary, 2012). The proposed best practices for construction industries should be cost-efficient and feasible and accord to construction life cycle. As indicated by lots of literatures, construction life cycle should be divided into manufacture and transportation of building materials; energy consumption of construction equipment; energy consumption for processing resources; and disposal of construction waste (Han & Lee, 2011; Peter & Manley, 2012). Potential practices would be analyzed associated with construction life cycle.
This review is divides into 2 sections. The first section is about GHG emissions calculation with analysis of several best-known GHG emissions protocols. After the problems or most concerns determined by guidance from section 1, construction companies can take corresponding best practices from the following section. The second section is analysis of several potential practices to establish best practices guidance for construction companies in Waterloo Region in order to help them reduce their GHG emissions and make better environment performance.
GHG Emissions Calculation
The most popular protocol used to identify GHG emissions sources is the GHG protocol Corporate Standard developed by World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) (GHG Protocol, 2011). This guidance document provides standards by which to measure CO2 and the five other GHGs included in the Kyoto Protocol (Grubb, Vrolijk, Brack & Forsyth, 1999),...