Beta Partiklers Afbøjning I Magnetfelt Essay

1213 words - 5 pages

Fysikrapport nr. 9Beta-partiklers afbøjning i magnetfelt.Øvelsen er udført af X & andre på 3FY holdet.Øvelsen er udført Onsdag d. 23 Februar 1994.Rapporten er skrevet af XBeta-partiklers afbøjning i magnetfelt.Formål: At undersøge det kontinuerte beta-spektrum fra 90Sr. Herunder studeres også relativistiske effekter, dvs. effekter der opstår pga. elektronernes høje hastigheder.Teori: Når en ladet partikel f.eks. en -partikel bevæger sig vinkelret på et homogentmagnetfelt, vil den udføre en cirkelbevægelse med konstant fart. Cirklens radius afhænger af -partiklens energi og styrken af magnetfeltet. Kendes B-feltets størrelse og radius i cirkelbanen, kan man således bestemme -partiklens energi. Følgende formel er gældende for ovenstående.e * v * B = m * v2 / re er -partiklens ladning, v er partiklens fart, B er magnetfeltets fluxtæthed og m er -partiklens masse. I den anvendte forsøgs opstilling er r=29±1. Denne formel gælder også relativistisk, altså når v kommer tæt på c.Når man arbejder med relativistiske hastigheder sker der forskellige ting vi ikke kender fra hverdagen. Bl.a. kender vi fra relativitetsteorien følgende formel.m(v) = m0 / (1 - v2/c2)½m0 er massen af -partiklen og m(v) er massen når den har farten v. Desuden siger relativitetsteorien, at -partiklernes totale energi Etot, kan skrives som summen af partiklens kinetiske energi Ekin og dens hvileenergi Ehvile. Dette er udtrykt i nedenstående formel.Etot = Ekin + Ehvile = m(v) * c2 = Ekin + m0 * c2Ekin = Etot - m0 * c2 = (m(v) - m0) * c2Som det ses ovenfor kan Ekin findes ved omskrivning, og udregnes hvis v er kendt.v/c kan beregnes ud fra nedenstående formel og dermed kan v altså findes.(v/c)2 = (e * B * r / c)2 / m02 + (e * B * r / c)2Alle størrelser i formlen er kendte i dette forsøg.Opstilling: Se bilag nr. 1.Apparatur: Strømforsyning (max. 5A), elektromagnet med flade polsko, 2 stk. 600 vindinger spoler, plexiglasholder, Beta-kilde, Hall-sonde, GM-rør og GM-tæller; 2 DMM.Udførelse: Forsøget stilles op som beskrevet. Strømforsyningen tilsluttes elektromagneten med polsko. De to spoler forbindes serielt, så deres magnetfelter kommer til at vende samme vej. I samme kredsløb kobles et DMM, der måler strømstyrken.-kilden skrues fast i plexiglasholderen, der anbringes mellem de to polsko. Et GM-rør sættes helt hen til udskæringen af kvart-cirklen, så det kan måle alle partiklerne. Ind i magnetfeltet stikkes en Hall-sonde, som måler magnetfeltets fluxtæthed. Hall-sonden er til sluttet et Hall-meter, som kan vise B-feltets styrke v.hj. af et DMM.Forsøges udføres så ved at sende en strøm...

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